Major Section: RELEASE-NOTES
NOTE! New users can ignore these release notes, because the documentation has been updated to reflect all changes that are recorded here.
Fixed soundness bugs in the handling of primitive function
and improved its documentation. (The executable counterpart returned an
incorrect default value, and the axiom
pkg-name to be other than
"" in order to avoid the default value of "ACL2".) As fallout, a new
symbol-package-name-of-symbol-is-not-empty-string, now asserts that the
symbol-package-name of a symbol is never
"". Thanks to Mike
Gordon for bringing these soundness bugs to our attention by attempting to
prove translations of ACL2 axioms in HOL4.
Fixed a soundness bug in linear arithmetic, due to incomplete tracking of
forced assumptions while deriving inequalities. Thanks to Robert Krug for
providing a fix and a proof of
nil before the fix.
Fixed a soundness bug in the redundancy criterion for
which has been modified; see redundant-events. This bug is illustrated
below. Thanks to Peter Dillinger and Jared Davis for contributions to an
email thread that led us to discover this bug. The solution is that for a
definition to be redundant with an earlier definition, ACL2 no longer ignores
xargs except when skipping proofs (e.g., during
include-book). However, a new ``measure'',
(:? v1 ... vk), is
supported, for specifying a measured subset of the set of formals, i.e., a
set of formals that serves as the set of parameters for some valid measure.
(local (defun foo (x y) (declare (xargs :measure (acl2-count y))) (if (and (consp x) (consp y)) (foo (cons x x) (cdr y)) y)))
; So the following is redundant -- but it guesses a measure ; of (acl2-count x), which isn't right! (defun foo (x y) (if (and (consp x) (consp y)) (foo (cons x x) (cdr y)) y)))
; end of encapsulate
; Now we prove a non-theorem by exploiting the bug above, ; erroneously replacing formal y by a constant in the induction ; scheme hinted below. (This should not be allowed, as y should be ; labeled as a measured formal.)
(defthm bad (atom x) :rule-classes nil :hints (("Goal" :induct (foo x '(3)))))
; It's easy to get a contradiction by instantiating the ; non-theorem just above. (defthm contradiction nil :rule-classes nil :hints (("Goal" :use ((:instance bad (x '(7)))))))
Fixed a bug in
pl and the proof-checker's
sr) command that was causing a Lisp break. For
improved the display of unifying substitutions, modified output to take
(equal var term) into account properly, and arranged
for inclusion of meta rules that modify the given term. Thanks to Eric
Smith for bringing these issues to our attention.
Introduced new utilities for undoing commands,
ubu!, which are analogous to
(respectively) except that they only undo back up to, but not including, the
Fixed a performance bug, pointed out by Eric Smith, that was negating efforts made for the preceding release to avoid computation for disabled warnings.
*acl2-exports*. Thanks to Bob
Boyer and Erik Reeber (respectively) for bringing these issues to our
Improved the automatic proclaiming of function types for GCL and OpenMCL, specifically to use an output format consistent with the Common Lisp spec. Thanks to Bob Boyer for bringing this issue to our attention.
books/misc/transfinite.lisp, which deals with transfinite induction
in ACL2. Thanks to Eric Smith for contributing this book.
books/misc/process-book-readme.lisp to the distribution. Thanks to
Sandip Ray for pointing out its omission.
books/concurrent-programs/german-protocol/. These contributions can be
used as tutorials, especially by new ACL2 users, for learning how to model
concurrent protocols in ACL2 and the steps involved in reasoning about their
correctness. Thanks to Sandip Ray for these contributions. See the
Readme.lsp files in these directories.
Theory invariants may now involve the variable
ENS instead of the
THEORY. The practical effect of this change is that any
expression of the form
(MEMBER-EQUAL rune THEORY) occurring in a
theory-invariant expression should be replaced by
(ACTIVE-RUNEP rune). See theory-invariant. Thanks to Eric Smith and
Dave Greve for pointing out an inefficiency in the handling of theory
invariants that led to this change, which can speed up their handling by
orders of magnitude on large examples, and to Eric for testing this change
and pointing out problems with an early implementation of it.
Theory invariants (see theory-invariant) are no longer checked on theories
deftheory events. After all, one can define a theory
deftheory that is not intended to be used as the current theory, but
rather is intended to be combined with other theories
(see theory-functions). Thanks to Eric Smith for bringing this issue to our
Theory-invariant errors had been reported with very little detail when
warnings were inhibited. This problem has been fixed; thanks to Eric Smith
for bringing it to our attention and providing an example. We have also
improved the handling of redundancy for
defun-sk now has a new optional keyword,
can be used to change the form of the
rewrite rule generated when
the quantifier is
forall. Thanks to Eric Smith and Sandip Ray for
useful discussions on this topic. We have also slightly modified the
hints for the
defthm event underneath a
defun-sk in order to
make the proof more reliably efficient.
A new event,
reset-prehistory, allows setting of a barrier before which
undoing is illegal. An argument to this macro allows the barrier to be made
permanent; otherwise, it can be removed with
Thanks to Peter Dillinger for useful conversations leading to the addition of
A new query,
), allows users to
determine whether or not they are in a
wormhole. Thanks to Peter
Dillinger for providing this utility.
Value-triple no longer evaluates its form during
in raw Lisp its calls trivially macroexpand to
nil, without any
consideration of its argument. This change avoids errors and warnings when
stobj names occur in the argument.
We fixed what could be considered a soundness hole that could occur by exploiting redefinition in a particular way. Thanks to Peter Dillinger for raising a question that led to discovery of this hole.
A bug has been fixed in handling of illegal theory expressions. Thanks
to Eric Smith, who reported this problem and provided the example
(in-theory '((:definition natp) (:rewrite doesntexist)))
to show how a hard error could occur.
Improved error reporting by
certify-book when the certification
world contains inadmissible forms.
defchoose to add two new keyword arguments. There is now a
:doc keyword argument; previously, an optional documentation string
(see doc-string) was to be placed just before the body, without a keyword.
There is also a
:strengthen argument that strengthens the axiom added,
which allows for the definition of ``fixing'' functions for equivalence
relations that choose canonical representatives of equivalence classes.
See defchoose. Thanks for Dave Greve for useful discussions that led us to
books/misc/bash.lisp, which provides utilities for simplifying a
goal into a list of subgoals (as documented at the top of that file). Thanks
to Dave Greve for requesting this utility and suggesting refinements to its
functionality, which have been incorporated.
(For Emacs users only) The command
meta-x new-shell provided by file
emacs/emacs-acl2.el now puts you in shell-mode, which for example
supports directory tracking. Thanks to Jared Davis for suggesting this
Fixed some mishandling of stobjs by
Introduced a new event,
defttag, that introduces a ``trust tag''
(``ttag'') allowing for extensions of ACL2 and for the use of generally
unsafe ACL2 constructs. Thanks to Peter Dillinger, Sandip Ray, and Erik
Reeber for useful discussions on
defttag and the following related
A new event,
remove-untouchable, can be used to give users access to system functions and data structures. We also fixed a bug in
push-untouchable; and, it no longer is a no-op in
programmode. Thanks to Peter Dillinger for proposing
remove-untouchableand suggesting that it and
push-untouchablebe functional in
Raw-mode (see set-raw-mode) no longer disables
set-raw-modeis now disallowed unless there is an active ttag (see defttag). If you want to execute
t)and there is no active ttag, consider executing
Redefinition of system functions is disallowed unless there is an active ttag. However,
(defttag :redef!)in order to allow redefinition of system functions.
A new event,
progn!, is a legal embedded event form that can go in books and both
prognforms (see embedded-event-form), and is similar to
prognexcept that it allows arbitrary forms. Thus, a
progn!form is potentially dangerous and can only be evaluated if there is an active ttag.
See ttags-seen for information about how to find the ttags known in the current ACL2 world, and for related caveats.
A new book created with Peter Dillinger,
progn!to define utiliities
with-redef-allowed, which respectively allow raw Lisp evaluation and redefinition to take place within a certifiable book (!).
with-output is no longer allowed in function bodies because it
does not have (and has never had) any effect in raw Lisp. See with-output
for a workaround.
Fixed a bug in redundancy of
defstobj in raw Lisp, which caused an
error when certifying a book with a redundant
defstobj event whose
stobj had already been modified. Here is an example:
(defstobj st fld) (update-fld 3 st) (certify-book "foo" 1) ; where foo.lisp contains (defstobj st fld)
New books illustrating
make-event have been contributed in directory
dotimes.lisp (David Rager),
logical-tangent.lisp (Peter Dillinger).
print-object$ (see io) so that it no longer prints an extra
space at the end.
Replaced the ``draconian restriction to avoid capture'' that had prevented
:functional-instance hints from being legal. The corresponding
check now only requires that no variable free in the functional substitution
is captured by a
Added new extended metafunction,
mfc-rw+, which is equivalent to
mfc-rw except that it takes an alist argument, which may be useful for
efficiency. See extended-metafunctions. Thanks to Robert Krug for
suggesting this more efficient variant of
Added support for the
We now cause an error on a call of
open-input-channel (see io) with an
argument string whose first character is the
| character. Thanks to Bob
Boyer for providing an example (several months ago) showing the danger of
such calls, namely that the following command would log you out and kill all
of your processes when running on top of GCL in Linux:
(open-input-channel "|kill -9 -1" :object state)
Restricted the use of
make-event to contexts in which it can be tracked
properly, under legal events (see embedded-event-form). Thanks to
Peter Dillinger for bringing an example to our attention that led to this
Fixed a bug that was avoiding guard-checking for the functions
compress2. Thanks to David Rager for bringing this
bug to our attention.
Added an error message when a
fails, to clarify whether failure is for the measure conjecture or for
the guard conjecture. Thanks to David Rager for requesting
clarification for such failures.
Fixed a bug in reporting of guard violations (hard Lisp error) when certain
macros (for example,
cond) are used in the guard. Thanks to Jared
Davis for bringing this problem to our attention and providing assistance
with the solution, in particular by providing a helpful example.
Grant Passmore has contributed a resolution/paramodulation prover written in
ACL2, in directory
books/deduction/passmore/. Thanks, Grant.
Improved the error message when illegal theories are encountered.
Improved the suppression of output for
inhibit-output arguments of
routines in the book
books/misc/expander.lisp. Thanks to Qiang Zhang for
pointing out the possibility for improvement here.
Added a new directory
books/arithmetic-3/extra/ that extends
books/arithmetic-3 with additional rules, contributed by Alex
Spiridonov with guidance from Robert Krug. WARNING: This directory is under
development. It may undergo large changes in future releases, so please
consider it experimental and subject to change. Feedback is welcomed.
As part of the work mentioned just above, Robert Krug and Alex Spiridonov
contributed improvements to
o A new rule
|(* (/ x) (/ (expt x n)))|in
bind-free/collect.lisp, which is important for reducing
collect-*expressions though it slowed down one proof (see comment above this rule in
o Slight improvements of rules
o To avoid conflict with
books/rtl/rel6/arithmetic/, renamed rule
floor-mod/floor-mod.lisp, and renamed
(GCL on Windows only) Made a low-level change to avoid multiplying stacks for GCL on Windows, since GCL 2.6.6 broke while doing this.
Fixed bugs in linear arithmetic (rarely evidenced, it seems) involving using
< to compare complex rational constants. Thanks to Robert Krug for
helping with the fixes.
Added a new event,
assert-event, for checking that forms evaluate to
nil values. Thanks to Peter Dillinger for suggesting and
collaborating on this addition.