`o<`

is well-founded on `o-p`

s
Major Section: MISCELLANEOUS

The soundness of ACL2 rests in part on the well-foundedness of `o<`

on
`o-p`

s. This can be taken as obvious if one is willing to grant that
those concepts are simply encodings of the standard mathematical notions of
the ordinals below `epsilon-0`

and its natural ordering relation. But it
is possible to prove that `o<`

is well-founded on `o-p`

s without
having to assert any connection to the ordinals and that is what we do here.
The book `books/ordinals/proof-of-well-foundedness`

carries out the proof
outlined below in ACL2, using only that the natural numbers are
well-founded.

Before outlining the above mentioned proof, we note that in the analogous
documentation page of ACL2 Version_2.7, there is a proof of the
well-foundedness of `e0-ord-<`

on `e0-ordinalp`

s, the less-than relation
and recognizer for the old ordinals (that is, for the ordinals appearing in
ACL2 up through that version). Manolios and Vroon have given a proof in ACL2
Version_2.7 that the current ordinals (based on `o<`

and `o-p`

) are
order-isomorphic to the old ordinals (based on `e0-ord-<`

and
`e0-ordinalp`

). Their proof establishes that switching from the old
ordinals to the current ordinals preserves the soundness of ACL2. For
details see their paper:

```
Manolios, Panagiotis & Vroon, Daron.
Ordinal arithmetic in ACL2.
Kaufmann, Matt, & Moore, J Strother (eds).
Fourth International Workshop on the ACL2 Theorem
Prover and Its Applications (ACL2-2003),
July, 2003.
See URL
````http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/moore/acl2/workshop-2003/`

.

We now give an outline of the above mentioned proof of well-foundedness. We
first observe three facts about `o<`

on ordinals that have been proved by
ACL2 using only structural induction on lists. These theorems can be proved
by hand.

(defthm transitivity-of-o< (implies (and (o< x y) (o< y z)) (o< x z)) :rule-classes nil)These three properties establish that(defthm non-circularity-of-o< (implies (o< x y) (not (o< y x))) :rule-classes nil)

(defthm trichotomy-of-o< (implies (and (o-p x) (o-p y)) (or (equal x y) (o< x y) (o< y x))) :rule-classes nil)

`o<`

orders the
`o-p`

s. To put such a statement in the most standard
mathematical nomenclature, we can define the macro:
(defmacro o<= (x y) `(not (o< ,y ,x)))and then establish that

`o<=`

is a relation that is a simple,
complete (i.e., total) order on ordinals by the following three
lemmas, which have been proved:
(defthm antisymmetry-of-o<= (implies (and (o-p x) (o-p y) (o<= x y) (o<= y x)) (equal x y)) :rule-classes nil :hints (("Goal" :use non-circularity-of-o<)))Crucially important to the proof of the well-foundedness of(defthm transitivity-of-o<= (implies (and (o-p x) (o-p y) (o<= x y) (o<= y z)) (o<= x z)) :rule-classes nil :hints (("Goal" :use transitivity-of-o<)))

(defthm trichotomy-of-o<= (implies (and (o-p x) (o-p y)) (or (o<= x y) (o<= y x))) :rule-classes nil :hints (("Goal" :use trichotomy-of-o<)))

`o<`

on `o-p`

s is the concept of ordinal-depth,
abbreviated `od`

:
(defun od (l) (if (o-finp l) 0 (1+ (od (o-first-expt l)))))If the

`od`

of an `o-p`

`x`

is smaller than that of an
`o-p`

`y`

, then `x`

is `o<`

`y`

:
(defun od-1 (x y) (if (o-finp x) (list x y) (od-1 (o-first-expt x) (o-first-expt y))))Remark. A consequence of this lemma is the fact that if(defthm od-implies-ordlessp (implies (and (o-p x) (< (od x) (od y))) (o< x y)) :hints (("Goal" :induct (od-1 x y))))

`s = s(1)`

,
`s(2)`

, ... is an infinite, `o<`

descending sequence of `o-p`

s, then
`od(s(1))`

, `od(s(2))`

, ... is a ``weakly'' descending sequence of
non-negative integers: `od(s(i))`

is greater than or equal to
`od(s(i+1))`

.
*Lemma Main.* For each non-negative integer `n`

, `o<`

well-orders
the set of `o-p`

s with `od`

less than or equal to `n`

.

Base Case. n = 0. The o-ps with 0 od are the non-negative integers. On the non-negative integers, o< is the same as <.Theorem.Induction Step. n > 0. We assume that o< well-orders the o-ps with od less than n.

If o< does not well-order the o-ps with od less than or equal to n, consider, D, the set of infinite, o< descending sequences of o-ps of od less than or equal to n. The first element of a sequence in D has od n. Therefore, the o-first-expt of the first element of a sequence in D has od n-1. Since o<, by IH, well-orders the o-ps with od less than n, the set of o-first-expts of first elements of the sequences in D has a minimal element, which we denote by B and which has od of n-1.

Let k be the minimum integer such that for some infinite, o< descending sequence s of o-ps with od less than or equal to n, the first element of s has an o-first-expt of B and an o-first-coeff of k. Notice that k is positive.

Having fixed B and k, let s = s(1), s(2), ... be an infinite, o< descending sequence of o-ps with od less than or equal to n such that s(1) has a o-first-expt of B and an o-first-coeff of k.

We show that each s(i) has a o-first-expt of B and an o-first-coeff of k. For suppose that s(j) is the first member of s either with o-first-expt B and o-first-coeff m (m neq k) or with o-first-expt B' and o-first-coeff B' (B' neq B). If (o-first-expt s(j)) = B', then B' has od n-1 (otherwise, by IH, s would not be infinite) and B' is o< B, contradicting the minimality of B. If 0 < m < k, then the fact that the sequence beginning at s(j) is infinitely descending contradicts the minimality of k. If m > k, then s(j) is greater than its predecessor; but this contradicts the fact that s is descending.

Thus, by the definition of o<, for s to be a decreasing sequence of o-ps, (o-rst s(1)), (o-rst s(2)), ... must be a decreasing sequence. We end by showing this cannot be the case. Let t = t(1), t(2), ... be an infinite sequence of o-ps such that t(i) = (o-rst s(i)). Then t is infinitely descending. Furthermore, t(1) begins with an o-p B' that is o< B. Since t is in D, t(1) has od n, therefore, B' has od n-1. But this contradicts the minimality of B. Q.E.D.

`o<`

well-orders the `o-p`

s. Proof. Every
infinite,` o<`

descending sequence of `o-p`

s has the
property that each member has `od`

less than or equal to the
`od`

, `n`

, of the first member of the sequence. This
contradicts Lemma Main.
Q.E.D.