(module rope mzscheme
  (require (lib "")
           (lib "")
           (lib "")
           (lib "")
           (lib "")
           (only (lib "" "srfi") string-fold))
  ;; Quick and dirty library implementing ropes, closely following
  ;; the description in:
  ;; H. Boehm, R. Atkinson, M. Plass.
  ;; 'Ropes: An Alternative to Strings'
  ;; Software --- Practice and Experience, Vol 25(12), 1315-1330.
  ;; (December 1995)
  ;; A rope is either a flat string, or a rope:concat.
  (define-struct rope:concat (l r len))
  ;; rope?: any -> boolean
  ;; Returns true if a-datum is a rope.
  (define (rope? a-datum)
    (or (string? a-datum)
        (rope:concat? a-datum)))
  ;; immutable-string-append: string string -> immutable-string
  ;; Appends two strings together, ensuring the result is an
  ;; immutable string.
  (define (immutable-string-append s1 s2)
      [(= (string-length s1) 0)
       (string->immutable-string s2)]
      [(= (string-length s2) 0)
       (string->immutable-string s1)]
       (string->immutable-string (string-append s1 s2))]))
  ;; immutable-substring: string number number -> immutable-string
  ;; Gets the substring of a-str, ensuring the result is an
  ;; immutable string.
  (define (immutable-substring a-str start end)
      [(and (= 0 start) (= end (string-length a-str)))
       (string->immutable-string a-str)]
        (substring a-str start end))]))
  ;; Arbitrary length cutoff until we allocate a new concat node
  ;; TODO: experiment to see what value is good for this.
  (define cutoff-before-concat-node-use 32)
  (define (below-flat-collapsing-cutoff? s1 s2)
    (and (current-optimize-flat-ropes)
         (< (+ (string-length s1) (string-length s2))
  (define current-optimize-flat-ropes (make-parameter #t))
  ;; string->rope: string -> rope
  ;; Given a string, returns a rope.
  (define (string->rope a-str)
     (let loop ([i 0])
         [(< (+ i cutoff-before-concat-node-use)
             (string-length a-str))
           (substring a-str i (+ i cutoff-before-concat-node-use))
           (loop (+ i cutoff-before-concat-node-use)))]
          (substring a-str i)]))))
  ;; rope-append: rope rope -> rope
  ;; Puts two ropes together.
  (define (rope-append rope-1 rope-2)
    (local ((define l1 (rope-length rope-1))
            (define l2 (rope-length rope-2))
            (define (convert-flats-to-immutable a-rope)
                [(string? a-rope)
                 (string->immutable-string a-rope)]
                [else a-rope])))
        [(and (string? rope-1) (string? rope-2)
              (below-flat-collapsing-cutoff? rope-1 rope-2))
         (immutable-string-append rope-1 rope-2)]
        [(and (rope:concat? rope-1)
              (string? (rope:concat-r rope-1))
              (string? rope-2)
              (below-flat-collapsing-cutoff? (rope:concat-r rope-1) rope-2))
         (make-rope:concat (rope:concat-l rope-1)
                            (rope:concat-r rope-1) rope-2)
                           (+ l1 l2))]
         (make-rope:concat (convert-flats-to-immutable rope-1)
                           (convert-flats-to-immutable rope-2)
                           (+ l1 l2))])))
  ;; rope-length: rope -> number
  ;; Returns the length of a rope
  (define (rope-length a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
       (string-length a-rope)]
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
  ;; rope-ref: rope number -> character
  ;; Gets the nth character of a-rope.
  (define (rope-ref a-rope index)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
       (string-ref a-rope index)]
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
       (local ((define l-length (rope-length l)))
           [(< index l-length)
            (rope-ref l index)]
            (rope-ref r (- index l-length))]))]))
  ;; subrope: rope number number -> rope
  ;; Takes a subsequence of the rope from start,
  ;; up to (but not including) end.
  (define subrope
    (local ((define (subrope a-rope start end)
              (match a-rope
                [(? string?)
                 (immutable-substring a-rope start end)]
                [(struct rope:concat (rope-1 rope-2 len))
                     ((define length-of-rope-1 (rope-length rope-1))
                      (define left
                          [(and (<= start 0)
                                (<= length-of-rope-1 end))
                          [(<= length-of-rope-1 start)
                           (subrope rope-1
                                    (min start length-of-rope-1)
                                    (min end length-of-rope-1))]))
                      (define right
                          [(and (<= start length-of-rope-1)
                                (<= len end))
                          [(<= end length-of-rope-1)
                           (subrope rope-2
                                    (max 0 (- start length-of-rope-1))
                                    (max 0 (- end length-of-rope-1)))])))
                   (rope-append left right))]))
            (define (clamp x low high)
              (min (max x low) high)))
        [(a-rope start)
         (subrope a-rope
                  (clamp start 0 (rope-length a-rope))
                  (rope-length a-rope))]
        [(a-rope start end)
         (cond [(<= start end)
                (subrope a-rope
                         (clamp start 0 (rope-length a-rope))
                         (clamp end 0 (rope-length a-rope)))]
                (error 'subrope "end greater than start" start end)])])))
  ;; rope->string: rope -> string
  ;; Gets a string from the rope.
  (define (rope->string a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
       (string-append (rope->string l)
                      (rope->string r))]))
  ;; rope-for-each: (char -> void) rope -> void
  ;; Iterates a function f across each character in the rope.
  (define (rope-for-each f a-rope)
    (rope-fold (lambda (ch acc) (f ch)) (void) a-rope))
  ;; fope-fold: (char X -> X) X rope -> X
  ;; Folds a character-consuming accumulator across the characters
  ;; in the rope.
  (define (rope-fold f acc a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
       (string-fold f acc a-rope)]
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
       (rope-fold f (rope-fold f acc l) r)]))
  (define (rope-fold/leaves f acc a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
       (f a-rope acc)]
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
       (rope-fold/leaves f (rope-fold/leaves f acc l) r)]))
  ;; open-input-rope: rope -> input-port
  ;; Opens an input port using the characters in the rope.
  (define (open-input-rope a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
       (open-input-string a-rope)]
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
        #t (open-input-rope l) (open-input-rope r))]))
  ;; rope-balance: rope -> rope
  ;; A fast-and-loose adaptation of the balancing algorithm described
  ;; in the paper.
  (define (rope-balance a-rope)
    (local ((define (add-leaf-to-forest a-leaf a-forest)
                [(empty? a-forest)
                 (list a-leaf)]
                [(< (rope-length a-leaf)
                    (rope-length (first a-forest)))
                 (cons a-leaf a-forest)]
                     ((define partial-forest
                        (merge-smaller-children a-forest (rope-length a-leaf))))
                    (cons (rope-append (first partial-forest) a-leaf)
                          (rest partial-forest))))]))
            (define (merge-smaller-children a-forest n)
                [(empty? (rest a-forest))
                [(<= (rope-length (first a-forest)) n)
                  (cons (rope-append (second a-forest) (first a-forest))
                        (rest (rest a-forest)))
            (define (restore-forest-order a-forest)
                [(empty? (rest a-forest))
                [(>= (rope-length (first a-forest))
                     (rope-length (second a-forest)))
                  (cons (rope-append (second a-forest) (first a-forest))
                        (rest (rest a-forest))))]
            (define (concatenate-forest a-forest)
                [(empty? (rest a-forest))
                 (first a-forest)]
                  (cons (rope-append (second a-forest) (first a-forest))
                        (rest (rest a-forest))))])))
       (rope-fold/leaves add-leaf-to-forest '() a-rope))))
  ;; rope-depth: rope -> natural-number
  (define (rope-depth a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
       (max (add1 (rope-depth l))
            (add1 (rope-depth r)))]))
  ;; rope-node-count: rope -> natural-number
  ;; Counts how many nodes (both leaves and concat nodes) are in the rope.
  ;; Just for debugging.
  (define (rope-node-count a-rope)
    (match a-rope
      [(? string?)
      [(struct rope:concat (l r len))
       (add1 (+ (rope-node-count l)
                (rope-node-count r)))]))
  (provide current-optimize-flat-ropes)
   [rope? (any/c . -> . boolean?)]
   [rope-append (rope? rope? . -> . rope?)]
   [rope-length (rope? . -> . natural-number/c)]
   [rope-ref (rope? natural-number/c . -> . char?)]
   [subrope (case->
             (rope? natural-number/c natural-number/c . -> . rope?)
             (rope? natural-number/c . -> . rope?))]
   [rope->string (rope? . -> . string?)]
   [string->rope (string? . -> . rope?)]
   [rope-for-each ((char? . -> . any) rope? . -> . any)]
   [rope-fold ((char? any/c . -> . any) any/c rope? . -> . any)]
   [rope-fold/leaves ((string? any/c . -> . any) any/c rope? . -> . any)]
   [rope-balance (rope? . -> . rope?)]
   [rope-depth (rope? . -> . natural-number/c)]
   [open-input-rope (rope? . -> . input-port?)]))