;;; @Package     csv.scm
;;; @Subtitle    Comma-Separated Value (CSV) Utilities in Scheme
;;; @HomePage    http://www.neilvandyke.org/csv-scm/
;;; @Author      Neil W. Van Dyke
;;; @AuthorEmail neil@@neilvandyke.org
;;; @Version     0.5
;;; @Date        2005-12-09

;; $Id: csv.scm,v 1.171 2005/12/09 08:50:17 neil Exp $

;;; @legal
;;; Copyright @copyright{} 2004 - 2005 Neil W. Van Dyke.  This program is Free
;;; Software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
;;; GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software
;;; Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any
;;; later version.  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
;;; useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of
;;; merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.  See
;;; @indicateurl{http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html} for details.  For
;;; other license options and consulting, contact the author.
;;; @end legal

(define-syntax %csv:testeez
  (syntax-rules () ((_ X ...)
                    ;; (testeez X ...)
                    (error "Tests disabled.")

;;; @section Introduction

;;; The @code{csv.scm} Scheme library provides utilities for reading various
;;; kinds of what are commonly known as ``comma-separated value'' (CSV) files.
;;; Since there is no standard CSV format@footnote{``The Comma Separated Value
;;; (CSV) File Format: Create or parse data in this popular pseudo-standard
;;; format,'' Web page, viewed 2004-05-26,
;;; @uref{http://www.creativyst.com/Doc/Articles/CSV/CSV01.htm}}, this library
;;; permits CSV readers to be constructed from a specification of the
;;; peculiarities of a given variant.  A default reader handles the majority of
;;; formats.
;;; One of the main uses of this library is to import data from old crusty
;;; legacy applications into Scheme for data conversion and other processing.
;;; To that end, this library includes various conveniences for iterating over
;;; parsed CSV rows, and for converting CSV input to the
;;; @uref{http://pobox.com/~oleg/ftp/Scheme/SXML.html, SXML 3.0} Scheme XML
;;; format.
;;; This library requires R5RS, SRFI-6, SRFI-23, and an @code{integer->char}
;;; procedure that accepts ASCII values.
;;; Other implementations of some kind of CSV reading for Scheme include
;;; Gauche's @code{text.csv} module, and the Scsh's @code{record-reader} and
;;; related procedures.  This library intends to be portable and more
;;; comprehensive.

;; TODO: Briefly introduce terms "row", "column", and "field".

(define-syntax %csv:error
  (syntax-rules () ((_ p m o)
                    (error (string-append p " : " m) o)
                    ;; Bigloo: (error p m o)

(define-syntax %csv:type-error
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((_ proc-str expected-str got-value)
     (%csv:error proc-str
                         (string-append "expected " expected-str ", received:")

(define %csv:a2c integer->char)

(define %csv:cr (%csv:a2c 13))
(define %csv:lf (%csv:a2c 10))

(define-syntax %csv:gosc
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((_ os-stx)
     (let* ((os  os-stx)
            (str (get-output-string os)))
       (close-output-port os)

(define (%csv:in-arg proc-name in)
  (cond ((input-port? in) in)
        ((string?     in) (open-input-string in))
        (else (%csv:type-error proc-name "input port or string" in))))

(define (%csv:reader-or-in-arg proc-name reader-or-in)
  (cond ((procedure?  reader-or-in) reader-or-in)
        ((input-port? reader-or-in) (make-csv-reader reader-or-in))
        ((string?     reader-or-in) (make-csv-reader (open-input-string
        (else (%csv:type-error proc-name
                                       "csv reader or input port or string"

;;; @section Reader Specs

;;; CSV readers are constructed using @dfn{reader specs}, which are sets of
;;; attribute-value pairs, represented in Scheme as association lists keyed on
;;; symbols.  Each attribute has a default value if not specified otherwise.
;;; The attributes are:

;;; @table @code
;;; @item newline-type
;;; Symbol representing the newline, or record-terminator, convention.  The
;;; convention can be a fixed character sequence (@code{lf}, @code{crlf}, or
;;; @code{cr}, corresponding to combinations of line-feed and carriage-return),
;;; any string of one or more line-feed and carriage-return characters
;;; (@code{lax}), or adaptive (@code{adapt}).  @code{adapt} attempts to detect
;;; the newline convention at the start of the input and assume that convention
;;; for the remainder of the input.  Default: @code{lax}
;;; @item separator-chars
;;; Non-null list of characters that serve as field separators.  Normally, this
;;; will be a list of one character.  Default: @code{(#\,)} (list of the comma
;;; character)
;;; @item quote-char
;;; Character that should be treated as the quoted field delimiter character,
;;; or @code{#f} if fields cannot be quoted.  Note that there can be only one
;;; quote character.  Default: @code{#\"} (double-quote)
;;; @item quote-doubling-escapes?
;;; Boolean for whether or not a sequence of two @code{quote-char} quote
;;; characters within a quoted field constitute an escape sequence for
;;; including a single @code{quote-char} within the string.  Default: @code{#t}
;;; @item comment-chars
;;; List of characters, possibly null, which comment out the entire line of
;;; input when they appear as the first character in a line.  Default:
;;; @code{()} (null list)
;;; @item whitespace-chars
;;; List of characters, possibly null, that are considered @dfn{whitespace}
;;; constituents for purposes of the @code{strip-leading-whitespace?} and
;;; @code{strip-trailing-whitespace?} attributes described below.
;;; Default: @code{(#\space)} (list of the space character)
;;; @item strip-leading-whitespace?
;;; Boolean for whether or not leading whitespace in fields should be
;;; stripped.  Note that whitespace within a quoted field is never stripped.
;;; Default: @code{#f}
;;; @item strip-trailing-whitespace?
;;; Boolean for whether or not trailing whitespace in fields should be
;;; stripped.  Note that whitespace within a quoted field is never stripped.
;;; Default: @code{#f}
;;; @item newlines-in-quotes?
;;; Boolean for whether or not newline sequences are permitted within quoted
;;; fields.  If true, then the newline characters are included as part of the
;;; field value; if false, then the newline sequence is treated as a premature
;;; record termination.  Default: @code{#t}
;;; @end table

;; TODO: Do not expose this procedure for now.  We expect it to go away and be
;; replaced with two other procedures.
;; @defproc %csv:csv-spec-derive orig-spec changes
;; Yields a new CSV spec that is derived from @var{orig-spec} by applying spec
;; @var{changes} as attribute substitions and additions to the original.  For
;; example, given an original CSV reader spec:
;; @lisp
;; (define my-first-csv-spec
;;   '((newline-type            . lax)
;;     (separator-chars         . (#\,))
;;     (quote-char              . #\")
;;     (quote-doubling-escapes? . #t)
;;     (whitespace-chars        . (#\space))))
;; @end lisp
;; a derived spec with a different @code{separator-chars} attribute and an
;; added @code{comment-chars} attribute can be created like:
;; @lisp
;; (%csv:csv-spec-derive my-first-csv-spec
;;                  '((separator-chars . (#\%))
;;                    (comment-chars   . (#\#))))
;; @result{}
;; ((separator-chars         . (#\%))
;;  (comment-chars           . (#\#))
;;  (newline-type            . lax)
;;  (quote-char              . #\")
;;  (quote-doubling-escapes? . #t)
;;  (whitespace-chars        . (#\space)))
;; @end lisp
;; In that the yielded spec might share some structure with @var{orig-spec}
;; and/or @var{changes}.  Most applications will not use this procedure
;; directly.

(define (%csv:csv-spec-derive orig-spec changes)
  ;; TODO: Make this not share structure.  Error-check and normalize at the
  ;; same time we clone.
  (let ((new-spec '()))
    (let ((add-to-new-spec
           (lambda (alist)
             (for-each (lambda (cell)
                         (or (assq (car cell) new-spec)
                             (set! new-spec (cons cell new-spec))))
      (add-to-new-spec changes)
      (add-to-new-spec orig-spec)
      (reverse new-spec))))

;;; @section Making Reader Makers

;;; CSV readers are procedures that are constructed dynamically to close over a
;;; particular CSV input and yield a parsed row value each time the procedure
;;; is applied.  For efficiency reasons, the reader procedures are themselves
;;; constructed by another procedure, @code{make-csv-reader-maker}, for
;;; particular CSV reader specs.

(define (%csv:csv-error code extra)
  ;; TODO: Maybe make the CSV error handler user-specifiable, or allow user to
  ;; specify some errors that should be disregarded.
  ;; TODO: Add position information.  Keep track of character position while
  ;; reading.
   (string-append "Erroneous CSV format: "
                  (case code
                     "Junk after close of quoted field:")
                    (else (string-append "INTERNAL ERROR: Unknown code: "
                                         (symbol->string code)))))

(define (%csv:newline-check-step0 newline-type c port)
  ;; (display "*DEBUG* (equal? newline-type 'lax) = ")
  ;; (write (equal? newline-type 'lax))
  ;; (newline)
  ;; (display "*DEBUG* (eqv? newline-type 'lax) = ")
  ;; (write (eqv? newline-type 'lax))
  ;; (newline)
  (case newline-type
    ((cr)   (eqv? c %csv:cr))
    ((lf)   (eqv? c %csv:lf))
    ((crlf) (if (eqv? c %csv:cr)
                         (let ((c2 (peek-char port)))
                           (cond ((eof-object? c2)
                                  ;; Note: This is a CR-EOF in an input that
                                  ;; uses CR-LF for terminating records.  We
                                  ;; are discarding the CR, so it will not be
                                  ;; added to the field string.  We might want
                                  ;; to signal an error.
                                 ((eqv? c2 %csv:lf)
                                  (read-char port)
                                 (else #f)))
             ((lax detect) (cond ((eqv? c %csv:cr)
                                  (let ((c2 (peek-char port)))
                                    (cond ((eof-object? c2) #t)
                                          ((eqv? c2 %csv:lf)
                                           (read-char port)
                                          (else 'cr))))
                                 ((eqv? c %csv:lf) 'lf)
                                 (else #f)))
             (else (%csv:error
                    "unrecognized newline-type"

(define %csv:make-portreader/positional
        (syntax-rules ()
          ((_ newline-type c port detected-newline-type)
           ;; Note: "port" and "detected-newline-type" must be identifiers.
           ;; "newline-type" and "c" must be identifiers or self-evals.
           (if (eqv? newline-type 'detect)
               (begin (set! detected-newline-type
                            (%csv:newline-check-step0 newline-type c port))
               (%csv:newline-check-step0 newline-type c port)))))
        ;; Note: This is to ensure the output string is gotten and closed
        ;; before consing it with the result of a recursive call.
        (syntax-rules ()
          ((_ os b) (let ((s (%csv:gosc os))) (cons s b))))))
    (lambda (newline-type
      (lambda (port)
        (let ((dnlt #f))
          (let read-fields-or-eof ((c (read-char port)))
             ((eof-object? c) '())
             ((and strip-leading-whitespace? (memv c whitespace-chars))
              ;; It's leading whitespace char when we're ignoring leading
              ;; whitespace in fields, and there might just be whitespace and
              ;; then an EOF, which should probably be considered just an EOF
              ;; rather than a row with one empty field, so just skip this
              ;; whitespace char.
              (read-fields-or-eof (read-char port)))
             ((and (not (null? comment-chars)) (memv c comment-chars))
              ;; It's a comment char in the first column (or in the first
              ;; non-whitespace column, if "strip-leading-whitespace?" is true,
              ;; so skip to end of line.
              (let ((fake-dnlt #f))
                (let loop ((c (read-char port)))
                  (cond ((eof-object? c) '())
                        ((newline-check newline-type c port fake-dnlt)
                         (read-fields-or-eof (read-char port)))
                        (else (loop (read-char port)))))))
              ;; It's not going to be just an EOF, so try to read a row.
              (let ((row
                     (let read-fields ((c c))
                        ;; If an EOF or newline in an unquoted field,
                        ;; consider the field and row finished.  (We don't
                        ;; consider EOF before newline to be an error,
                        ;; although perhaps that would be a useful check
                        ;; for a freak premature end-of-input when dealing
                        ;; with "well-formed" CSV).
                        ((or (eof-object? c)
                             (newline-check newline-type c port dnlt))
                         (list ""))
                        ;; If a field separator, finish this field and cons
                        ;; with value of recursive call to get the next
                        ;; field.
                        ((memv c separator-chars)
                         (cons "" (read-fields (read-char port))))
                        ;; If we're ignoring leading whitespace, and it's a
                        ;; whitespace-chars character, then recurse to keep
                        ;; finding the field start.
                        ((and strip-leading-whitespace?
                              (memv c whitespace-chars))
                         (read-fields (read-char port)))
                        ;; If a quote, read a quoted field.
                        ((and quote-char (eqv? c quote-char))
                         (let ((os (open-output-string)))
                           (let loop ((c (read-char port)))
                              ((or (eof-object? c)
                                   (and (not newlines-in-quotes?)
                                        (newline-check newline-type
                                                       c port dnlt)))
                               (list (%csv:gosc os)))
                              ((and quote-char (eqv? c quote-char))
                               (if quote-doubling-escapes?
                                   (let ((c2 (read-char port)))
                                     (if (eqv? c2 quote-char)
                                         (begin (write-char c2 os)
                                                (loop (read-char port)))
                                          (let skip-after ((c c2))
                                             ((or (eof-object? c)
                                                   newline-type c port dnlt))
                                             ((memv c separator-chars)
                                              (read-fields (read-char port)))
                                             ((memv c whitespace-chars)
                                              ;; Note: We tolerate
                                              ;; whitespace after field
                                              ;; close quote even if
                                              ;; skip-trailing-whitespace?
                                              ;; is false.
                                              (skip-after (read-char port)))
                                             (else (%csv:csv-error
                                   (gosc-cons os
                                              (read-fields (read-char port)))))
                              (else (write-char c os)
                                    (loop (read-char port)))))))
                        ;; It's the start of an unquoted field.
                         (let ((os (open-output-string)))
                           (write-char c os)
                           (let loop ((c (read-char port)))
                              ((or (eof-object? c)
                                   (newline-check newline-type c port dnlt))
                               (list (get-output-string os)))
                              ((memv c separator-chars)
                               (gosc-cons os (read-fields (read-char port))))
                              ((and strip-trailing-whitespace?
                                    (memv c whitespace-chars))
                               ;; TODO: Maybe optimize to avoid creating a new
                               ;; output string every time we see whitespace.
                               ;; We could use a string collector with unwrite.
                               ;; And/or do lookahead to see whether whitespace
                               ;; is only one character.  Do this after we have
                               ;; a better regression test suite.
                               (let ((ws-os (open-output-string)))
                                 (write-char c ws-os)
                                 (let ws-loop ((c (read-char port)))
                                    ((or (eof-object? c)
                                          newline-type c port dnlt))
                                     (close-output-port ws-os)
                                     (list (%csv:gosc os)))
                                    ((memv c separator-chars)
                                     (close-output-port ws-os)
                                     (gosc-cons os (read-fields (read-char
                                    ((memv c whitespace-chars)
                                     (write-char c ws-os)
                                     (ws-loop (read-char port)))
                                     (display (%csv:gosc ws-os) os)
                                     (write-char c os)
                                     (loop (read-char port)))))))
                              (else (write-char c os)
                                    (loop (read-char port)))))))))))
                (if (null? row)
                    (if (eq? newline-type 'detect)
                        (cons dnlt row)

(define %csv:make-portreader
  ;; TODO: Make a macro for the three times we list the spec attributes.
  (letrec ((pb (lambda (x) (if x #t #f)))
           (pc (lambda (x)
                 (cond ((char?   x) x)
                       ((string? x) (case (string-length x)
                                      ((1)  (string-ref  x 0))
                                      (else (%csv:type-error
                       (else (%csv:type-error "make-csv-reader-maker"
           (pc-f (lambda (x)
                   (cond ((not     x) x)
                         ((char?   x) x)
                         ((string? x) (case (string-length x)
                                        ((0)  #f)
                                        ((1)  (string-ref  x 0))
                                        (else (%csv:type-error
                                               "character or #f"
                         (else (%csv:type-error "make-csv-reader-maker"
                                                        "character or #f"
           (pe (lambda (x acceptable)
                 (if (memq x acceptable)
                      (let ((os (open-output-string)))
                        (display "symbol from the set " os)
                        (write acceptable os)
                        (%csv:gosc os))
           (plc-n (lambda (x)
                    (or (list? x)
                        (%csv:type-error "make-csv-reader-maker"
                                                 "list of characters"
                    (map pc x)))
           (plc (lambda (x)
                  (let ((result (plc-n x)))
                    (if (null? result)
                        (%csv:type-error "make-csv-reader-maker"
                                                 "non-null list of characters"
    (lambda (reader-spec)
      (let ((newline-type               'lax)
            (separator-chars            '(#\,))
            (quote-char                 #\")
            (quote-doubling-escapes?    #t)
            (comment-chars              '())
            (whitespace-chars           '(#\space))
            (strip-leading-whitespace?  #f)
            (strip-trailing-whitespace? #f)
            (newlines-in-quotes?        #t))
        ;; TODO: It's erroneous to have two entries for the same attribute in a
        ;; spec.  However, it would be nice if we error-detected duplicate
        ;; entries, or at least had assq semantics (first, rather than last,
        ;; wins).  Use csv-spec-derive's descendants for that.
         (lambda (item)
           (let ((v (cdr item)))
             (case (car item)
                (set! newline-type (pe v '(cr crlf detect lax lf))))
                (set! separator-chars (plc v)))
                (set! quote-char (pc-f v)))
                (set! quote-doubling-escapes? (pb v)))
                (set! comment-chars (plc-n v)))
                (set! whitespace-chars (plc-n v)))
                (set! strip-leading-whitespace?  (pb v)))
                (set! strip-trailing-whitespace? (pb v)))
                (set! newlines-in-quotes? (pb v))))))

;;; @defproc make-csv-reader-maker reader-spec
;;; Constructs a CSV reader constructor procedure from the @var{reader-spec},
;;; with unspecified attributes having their default values.
;;; For example, given the input file @code{fruits.csv} with the content:
;;; @example
;;; apples  |  2 |  0.42
;;; bananas | 20 | 13.69
;;; @end example
;;; a reader for the file's apparent format can be constructed like:
;;; @lisp
;;; (define make-food-csv-reader
;;;   (make-csv-reader-maker
;;;    '((separator-chars            . (#\|))
;;;      (strip-leading-whitespace?  . #t)
;;;      (strip-trailing-whitespace? . #t))))
;;; @end lisp
;;; The resulting @code{make-food-csv-reader} procedure accepts one argument,
;;; which is either an input port from which to read, or a string from which to
;;; read.  Our example input file then can be be read by opening an input port
;;; on a file and using our new procedure to construct a reader on it:
;;; @lisp
;;; (define next-row
;;;   (make-food-csv-reader (open-input-file "fruits.csv")))
;;; @end lisp
;;; This reader, @code{next-row}, can then be called repeatedly to yield a
;;; parsed representation of each subsequent row.  The parsed format is a list
;;; of strings, one string for each column.  The null list is yielded to
;;; indicate that all rows have already been yielded.
;;; @lisp
;;; (next-row) @result{} ("apples" "2" "0.42")
;;; (next-row) @result{} ("bananas" "20" "13.69")
;;; (next-row) @result{} ()
;;; @end lisp

(define (make-csv-reader-maker reader-spec)
  (let ((make-portread
         (if (let ((p (assq 'newline-type reader-spec))) (and p (cdr p)))
             ;; Newline-adapting portreader-maker.
                    (%csv:csv-spec-derive reader-spec
                                                  '((newline-type . detect)))))
                  ;; TODO: The set of cr/crlf/lf newline-type portreaders are
                  ;; constructed optimistically right now for two reasons:
                  ;; 1. we don't yet sanitize reader-specs of shared structure
                  ;; that can be mutated behind our backs; 2. eventually, we
                  ;; want to add a "lots-o-shots?" argument that, when true,
                  ;; would do this anyway.  Consider.
                    (%csv:csv-spec-derive reader-spec
                                                  '((newline-type . cr)))))
                    (%csv:csv-spec-derive reader-spec
                                                  '((newline-type . crlf)))))
                    (%csv:csv-spec-derive reader-spec
                                                  '((newline-type . lf))))))
               (lambda ()
                 (let ((actual-portread #f))
                   (let ((adapt-portread
                          (lambda (port)
                            (let ((dnlt-row (detect-portread port)))
                              (if (null? dnlt-row)
                                  (begin (set! actual-portread
                                               (case (car dnlt-row)
                                                 ((cr)   cr-portread)
                                                 ((crlf) crlf-portread)
                                                 ((lf)   lf-portread)
                                                 (else   actual-portread)))
                                         (cdr dnlt-row)))))))
                     (set! actual-portread adapt-portread)
                     (lambda (port) (actual-portread port))))))
             ;; Stateless portreader-maker.
             (let ((reusable-portread
                    (%csv:make-portreader reader-spec)))
               (lambda () reusable-portread)))))
    (lambda (in)
      (let ((port     (%csv:in-arg "[csv-reader]" in))
            (portread (make-portread)))
        (lambda () (portread port))))))

;;; @section Making Readers

;;; In addition to being constructed from the result of
;;; @code{make-csv-reader-maker}, CSV readers can also be constructed using
;;; @code{make-csv-reader}.

;;; @defproc make-csv-reader in [reader-spec]
;;; Construct a CSV reader on the input @var{in}, which is an input port or a
;;; string.  If @var{reader-spec} is given, and is not the null list, then a
;;; ``one-shot'' reader constructor is constructed with that spec and used.  If
;;; @var{reader-spec} is not given, or is the null list, then the default CSV
;;; reader constructor is used.  For example, the reader from the
;;; @code{make-csv-reader-maker} example could alternatively have been
;;; constructed like:
;;; @lisp
;;; (define next-row
;;;   (make-csv-reader
;;;    (open-input-file "fruits.csv")
;;;    '((separator-chars            . (#\|))
;;;      (strip-leading-whitespace?  . #t)
;;;      (strip-trailing-whitespace? . #t)))))
;;; @end lisp

(define make-csv-reader
  (let ((default-maker (make-csv-reader-maker '())))
    (lambda (in . rest)
      (let ((spec (cond ((null? rest)       '())
                        ((null? (cdr rest)) (car rest))
                        (else (%csv:error "make-csv-reader"
                                                  "extraneous arguments"
                                                  (cdr rest))))))
        ((if (null? spec)
             (make-csv-reader-maker spec))
         (%csv:in-arg "make-csv-reader" in))))))

;;; @section Basic Input Conveniences

;;; Several convenience procedures are provided for iterating over the CSV rows
;;; and for converting the CSV into a list.  To the dismay of some Scheme
;;; purists, each of these procedures accepts a @var{reader-or-in} argument,
;;; which can be a CSV reader, an input port, or a string.  If not a CSV
;;; reader, then the default reader constructor is used.  For example, all
;;; three of the following are equivalent:
;;; @lisp
;;; (csv->list                                     @var{string}  )
;;; @equiv{}
;;; (csv->list (make-csv-reader                    @var{string} ))
;;; @equiv{}
;;; (csv->list (make-csv-reader (open-input-string @var{string})))
;;; @end lisp

;;; @defproc csv-for-each proc reader-or-in
;;; Similar to Scheme's @code{for-each}, applies @var{proc}, a procedure of one
;;; argument, to each parsed CSV row in series.  @var{reader-or-in} is the CSV
;;; reader, input port, or string.  The return

;; TODO: Doc an example for this.

(define (csv-for-each proc reader-or-in)
  (let ((reader (%csv:reader-or-in-arg "csv-for-each" reader-or-in)))
    (let loop ((row (reader)))
      (if (not (null? row))
          (begin (proc row)
                 (loop (reader)))))))

;;; @defproc csv-map proc reader-or-in
;;; Similar to Scheme's @code{map}, applies @var{proc}, a procedure of one
;;; argument, to each parsed CSV row in series, and yields a list of the values
;;; of each application of @var{proc}, in order.  @var{reader-or-in} is the CSV
;;; reader, input port, or string.

;; TODO: Doc an example for this.

(define (csv-map proc reader-or-in)
  (let ((reader (%csv:reader-or-in-arg "csv-for-each" reader-or-in)))
    (let ((head '()))
      (let ((row (reader)))
        (if (null? row)
            (let ((pair (cons (proc row) '())))
              (set! head pair)
              (let loop ((prior pair))
                (let ((row (reader)))
                  (if (null? row)
                      (let ((pair (cons (proc row) '())))
                        (set-cdr! prior pair)
                        (loop pair)))))))))))

;;; @defproc csv->list reader-or-in
;;; Yields a list of CSV row lists from input @var{reader-or-in}, which is a
;;; CSv reader, input port, or string.

;; TODO: Doc an example for this.

(define (csv->list reader-or-in)
  (let ((reader (%csv:reader-or-in-arg "csv->list" reader-or-in)))
    (let ((head '()))
      (let ((row (reader)))
        (if (null? row)
            (let ((pair (cons row '())))
              (set! head pair)
              (let loop ((prior pair))
                (let ((row (reader)))
                  (if (null? row)
                      (let ((pair (cons row '())))
                        (set-cdr! prior pair)
                        (loop pair)))))))))))

;;; @section Converting CSV to SXML

;;; The @code{csv->sxml} procedure can be used to convert CSV to [SXML] format,
;;; for processing with various XML tools.

;;; @defproc csv->sxml reader-or-in [row-element [col-elements]]
;;; Reads CSV from input @var{reader-or-in} (which is a CSV reader, input port,
;;; or string), and yields an SXML representation.  If given, @var{row-element}
;;; is a symbol for the XML row element.  If @var{row-element} is not given,
;;; the default is the symbol @code{row}.  If given @var{col-elements} is a
;;; list of symbols for the XML column elements.  If not given, or there are
;;; more columns in a row than given symbols, column element symbols are of the
;;; format @code{col-@var{n}}, where @var{n} is the column number (the first
;;; column being number 0, not 1).
;;; For example, given a CSV-format file @code{friends.csv} that has the
;;; contents:
;;; @example
;;; Binoche,Ste. Brune,33-1-2-3
;;; Posey,Main St.,555-5309
;;; Ryder,Cellblock 9,
;;; @end example
;;; with elements not given, the result is:
;;; @lisp
;;; (csv->sxml (open-input-file "friends.csv"))
;;; @result{}
;;; (*TOP*
;;;  (row (col-0 "Binoche") (col-1 "Ste. Brune")  (col-2 "33-1-2-3"))
;;;  (row (col-0 "Posey")   (col-1 "Main St.")    (col-2 "555-5309"))
;;;  (row (col-0 "Ryder")   (col-1 "Cellblock 9") (col-2 "")))
;;; @end lisp
;;; With elements given, the result is like:
;;; @lisp
;;; (csv->sxml (open-input-file "friends.csv")
;;;            'friend
;;;            '(name address phone))
;;; @result{}
;;; (*TOP* (friend (name    "Binoche")
;;;                (address "Ste. Brune")
;;;                (phone   "33-1-2-3"))
;;;        (friend (name    "Posey")
;;;                (address "Main St.")
;;;                (phone   "555-5309"))
;;;        (friend (name    "Ryder")
;;;                (address "Cellblock 9")
;;;                (phone   "")))
;;; @end lisp

(define csv->sxml
  (let* ((top-symbol
          (string->symbol "*TOP*"))
          (lambda (n)
            (string->symbol (string-append "col-" (number->string n)))))
           (let loop ((i 0))
             (if (= i 32) ; arbitrary magic number
                 (cons (make-col-symbol i) (loop (+ 1 i)))))))
    ;; TODO: Have option to error when columns count doesn't match provided
    ;; column name list.
    (lambda (reader-or-in . rest)
      (let ((reader       (%csv:reader-or-in-arg "csv->sxml"
            (row-element  'row)
            (col-elements #f))
        ;; TODO: Maybe use case-lambda.
        (or (null? rest)
            (begin (set! row-element (car rest))
                   (let ((rest (cdr rest)))
                     (or (null? rest)
                         (begin (set! col-elements (car rest))
                                (let ((rest (cdr rest)))
                                  (or (null? rest)
                                       "extraneous arguments"
        ;; TODO: We could clone and grow default-col-elements for the duration
        ;; of this procedure.
        (cons top-symbol
              (csv-map (lambda (row)
                         (cons row-element
                               (let loop ((vals  row)
                                          (i     0)
                                          (names (or col-elements
                                 (if (null? vals)
                                     (cons (list (if (null? names)
                                                     (make-col-symbol i)
                                                     (car names))
                                                 (car vals))
                                           (loop (cdr vals)
                                                 (+ 1 i)
                                                 (if (null? names)
                                                     (cdr names))))))))

;; TODO: Make a define-csv-reader/positional, for great constant-folding.
;; That's part of the reason some things are done the way they are.

;; TODO: Make a csv-bind, as a newbie convenience for people without advanced
;; match forms, which looks good in examples.  This is better than a
;; csv-map/bind and a csv-for-each/bind.
;; (csv-for-each/bind ((column-binding ...) body ...)
;;               { (else => closure) | (else body ...) | }
;;               input-port
;;               [ csv-reader ])
;; (csv-for-each/bind
;;  ((lastname firstname email)
;;   ...)
;;  (else => (lambda (row) (error "CSV row didn't match pattern" row)))
;;  my-input-port
;;  my-csv-reader)

;; TODO: Handle escapes, once we find an actual example or specification of any
;; flavor of escapes in CSV other than quote-doubling inside a quoted field.

;; TODO: Add a spec attribute for treating adjacent separators as one, or
;; skipping empty fields.  This would probably only be used in practice for
;; parsing whitespace-separated input.

;; TODO: Get access to MS Excel or documentation, and make this correct.
;; (define msexcel-csv-reader-spec
;;   '((newline-type               . crlf)
;;     (separator-chars            . (#\,))
;;     (quote-char                 . #\")
;;     (quote-doubling-escapes?    . #t)
;;     (comment-chars              . ())
;;     (whitespace-chars           . (#\space))
;;     (strip-leading-whitespace?  . #f)
;;     (strip-trailing-whitespace? . #f)
;;     (newlines-in-quotes?        . #t)))

;; TODO: Maybe put this back in.
;; (define default-csv-reader-spec
;;   '((newline-type               . lax)
;;     (separator-chars            . (#\,))
;;     (quote-char                 . #\")
;;     (quote-doubling-escapes?    . #t)
;;     (comment-chars              . ())
;;     (whitespace-chars           . (#\space))
;;     (strip-leading-whitespace?  . #f)
;;     (strip-trailing-whitespace? . #f)
;;     (newlines-in-quotes?        . #t)))

;; TODO: Implement CSV writing, after CSV reading is field-tested and polished.

;; TODO: Call "close-input-port" once eof-object is hit, but make sure we still
;; can return an empty list on subsequent calls to the CSV reader.

;; TODO: Consider switching back to returning eof-object at the end of input.
;; We originally changed to returning the null list because we might want to
;; synthesize the EOF, and there is no R5RS binding for the eof-object.

;; TODO: [2005-12-09] In one test, Guile has a stack overflow when parsing a
;; row with 425 columns.  Wouldn't hurt to see if we can make things more
;; tail-recursive.

;;; @section Tests

;;; The @code{csv.scm} test suite can be enabled by editing the source code
;;; file and loading @uref{http://www.neilvandyke.org/testeez/, Testeez}.

(define (%csv:test)

   (test-define "define an ascii CR char"
                (string (integer->char 13)))
   (test-define "define an ascii LF char"
                (string (integer->char 10)))
   (test/equal "simple"
               (csv->list (string-append
                           "a" lf "b" lf "c" lf "d" lf ""))
               '(("a") ("b") ("c") ("d")))
   (test/equal "simple"
               (csv->list (string-append "  a  "
                                         "  b  "
                                         "  c  "
                                         "  d  "
               '(("  a  ") ("  b  ") ("  c  ") ("  d  ")))
   (test/equal "simple"
               (csv->list (string-append "aaa,bbb,ccc" cr lf
                                         "1,2,3" cr lf))
               '(("aaa" "bbb" "ccc") ("1" "2" "3")))
   (test/equal "quoted field"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"bbb\",ccc")
               '(("aaa" "bbb" "ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field with comma"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"bbb,bbb\",ccc")
               '(("aaa" "bbb,bbb" "ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field followed by whitespace"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"bbb\"   ,ccc")
               '(("aaa" "bbb" "ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field with newline in it"
               (csv->list (string-append "aaa,\"b" lf "b\",ccc" lf
                                         "ddd,eee,fff" lf))
               `(("aaa" ,(string-append "b" lf "b") "ccc")
                 ("ddd" "eee" "fff")))
   (test/equal "quoted field with doubling escape in middle"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"b\"\"b\",ccc")
               '(("aaa" "b\"b" "ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field with doubling escape at beginning"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"\"\"bbb\",ccc")
               '(("aaa" "\"bbb" "ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field with doubling escape at end"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"bbb\"\"\",ccc")
               '(("aaa" "bbb\"" "ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field with unterminated quote"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"bbb,ccc")
               '(("aaa" "bbb,ccc")))
   (test/equal "quoted field followed by eof"
               (csv->list "aaa,\"bbb\"")
               '(("aaa" "bbb")))
   (test-define "define a reader-maker that strips whitespace"
                 '((strip-leading-whitespace?  . #t)
                   (strip-trailing-whitespace? . #t))))
   (test/equal "whitespace strip on simple row terminated by eof"
               (csv->list (make-ws-stripping-reader
                           "  a  ,  b  ,  c  "))
               '(("a" "b" "c")))
   (test-define "define a newline-adapting reader-maker"
                (make-csv-reader-maker '((newline-type . adapt))))
   (test/equal "try newline-adapting reader-maker first time"
               (csv->list (make-nl-adapt-reader
                           (string-append "aaa,bbb" lf
                                          "ccc" cr ",ddd" cr lf
               `(("aaa" "bbb")
                 (,(string-append "ccc" cr)
                  ,(string-append "ddd" cr))
                 ("eee" "fff")))
   (test/equal "try newline-adapting reader-maker second time"
               (csv->list (make-nl-adapt-reader
                           (string-append "aaa,bbb" cr lf
                                          "ccc" cr ",ddd" lf cr lf
                                          "eee,fff" cr lf)))
               `(("aaa" "bbb")
                 (,(string-append "ccc" cr)
                  ,(string-append "ddd" lf))
                 ("eee" "fff")))
   (test-define "define an input string with pound char"
                (string-append "a,b,c"  lf
                               "#d,e,f"  lf
                               "g,h,i"  lf))
   (test-define "define reader-maker with pound as comment char"
                (make-csv-reader-maker '((comment-chars . (#\#)))))
   (test/equal "read str without pound as comment char"
               (csv->list str)
               '(("a" "b" "c") ("#d" "e" "f") ("g" "h" "i")))
   (test/equal "read str with pound as comment char"
               (csv->list (make-reader-with-pound-quote str))
               '(("a" "b" "c") ("g" "h" "i")))

   (test/equal "csv->sxml without row and column names"
               (csv->sxml (string-append "aaa,bbb,ccc" cr lf
                                         "1,2,3" cr lf))
               `(,(string->symbol "*TOP*")
                 (row (col-0 "aaa") (col-1 "bbb") (col-2 "ccc"))
                 (row (col-0 "1")   (col-1 "2")   (col-2 "3"))))
   (test/equal "csv->sxml with row and column names"
               (csv->sxml (string-append "aaa,bbb,ccc" cr lf
                                         "1,2,3" cr lf)
                          '(first second third))
               `(,(string->symbol "*TOP*")
                 (foo (first "aaa") (second "bbb") (third "ccc"))
                 (foo (first "1")   (second "2")   (third "3"))))
   ;; TODO: Add more test cases.

;;; @unnumberedsec History

;;; @table @asis
;;; @item Version 0.5 --- 2005-12-09
;;; Changed a non-R5RS use of @code{letrec} to @code{let*}, caught by Guile and
;;; David Pirotte.
;;; @item Version 0.4 --- 2005-06-07
;;; Converted to Testeez.  Minor documentation changes.
;;; @item Version 0.3 --- 2004-07-21
;;; Minor documentation changes.  Test suite now disabled by default.
;;; @item Version 0.2 --- 2004-06-01
;;; Fixed strange @code{case}-related bug exhibited under Gauche 0.8 and
;;; in @code{csv-internal:make-portreader/positional}.  Thanks to
;;; Grzegorz Chrupa@l{}a for reporting.
;;; @item Version 0.1 --- 2004-05-31
;;; First release, for testing with real-world input.
;;; @end table