PLT Redex: Reduction Semantics

_PLT Redex: Reduction Semantics_
_PLT Redex: Operational Semantics_

This collection provides these files:

  _reduction-semantics.ss_: the core reduction semantics

  _gui.ss_: a _visualization tool for reduction sequences_.

  _pict.ss_: a library for _generating picts and postscript from semantics_

  _subst.ss_: a library for _capture avoiding substitution_.

  _generator.ss_: automatically generates terms from a language

  _schemeunit.ss_: a _plt-redex specific library of schemeunit checks_.

In addition, the examples subcollection contains several
small languages to demonstrate various different uses of
this tool:

  _arithmetic.ss_: an arithmetic language with every
  possible order of evaluation

  _beginner.ss_: a PLT redex implementation of (much of) the
  beginning student teaching language.

  _church.ss_: church numerals with call by name
  normal order evaluation

  _combinators.ss_: fills in the gaps in a proof in
  Barendregt that i and j (defined in the file) are
  a combinator basis

  _compatible-closure.ss_: an example use of compatible
  closure. Also, one of the first examples from Matthias
  Felleisen and Matthew Flatt's monograph

  _eta.ss_: shows how eta is, in general, unsound.

  _ho-contracts.ss_: computes the mechanical portions of a
  proof in the Contracts for Higher Order Functions paper
  (ICFP 2002). Contains a sophisticated example use of an
  alternative pretty printer. : see further below.

  _macro.ss_: models macro expansion as a reduction semantics.

  _letrec.ss_: shows how to model letrec with a store and
  some infinite looping terms

  _omega.ss_: the call by value lambda calculus with call/cc.
  Includes omega and two call/cc-based infinite loops, one of
  which has an ever-expanding term size and one of which has
  a bounded term size.

  _semaphores.ss_: a simple threaded language with semaphores

  _subject-reduction.ss_: demos traces/pred that type checks
  the term.

  _threads.ss_: shows how non-deterministic choice can be
  modeled in a reduction semantics. Contains an example use
  of a simple alternative pretty printer.

  _types.ss_: shows how the simply-typed lambda calculus's
  type system can be written as a rewritten system (see
  Kuan, MacQueen, Findler in ESOP 2007 for more).


The _reduction-semantics.ss_ library defines a pattern
language, used in various ways:

  pattern = any
          | number
          | string
          | variable
          | (variable-except <symbol> ...)
          | (variable-prefix <symbol>)
          | hole
          | (hole <symbol-or-false>)
          | <symbol>
          | (name <symbol> <pattern>)
          | (in-hole <pattern> <pattern>)
          | (in-named-hole <symbol> <pattern> <pattern>)
          | (side-condition <pattern> <guard>)
          | (cross <symbol>)
          | (<pattern-sequence> ...)
          | <scheme-constant>

  pattern-sequence = pattern 
                   | ...            ;; literal ellipsis
                   | ..._<id>

The patterns match sexpressions. The _any_ pattern matches
any sepxression. The _number_ pattern matches any
number. The _string_ pattern matches any string. Those three
patterns may also be suffixed with an underscore and another
identifier, in which case they bind the full name (as if it
were an implicit `name' pattern) and match the portion
before the underscore.

The _variable_ pattern matches any symbol. The
_variable-except_ pattern matches any variable except those
listed in its argument. This is useful for ensuring that
keywords in the language are not accidentally captured by
variables. The _variable-prefix_ pattern matches any symbol
that begins with the given prefix.

The _hole_ pattern matches anything when inside a matching
in-hole pattern. The (hole <symbol-or-false>) variation on
that pattern is used in conjunction with in-named-hole to
support languages that require multiple patterns in a
hole. If the hole pattern is not being matched as part of
matching an in-hole pattern, it only matches the hole
(extracted as the result of some earlier match of the
in-hole pattern).

NOTE: If you wish to make a two element list whose elements
      are both holes, you must write this:

      ((hole #f) hole)

      If you were to write this: (hole hole), that would be
      interpreted as a single hole whose name is "hole".

The _<symbol>_ pattern stands for a literal symbol that must
match exactly, unless it is the name of a non-terminal in a
relevant language or contains an underscore. 

If it is a non-terminal, it matches any of the right-hand
sides of that non-terminal.

If the symbol is a non-terminal followed by an underscore,
for example e_1, it is implicitly the same as a name pattern
that matches only the non-terminal, (name e_1 e) for the
example. Accordingly, repeated uses of the same name are
constrainted to match the same expression.

If the symbol is a non-terminal followed by _!_, for example
e_!_1, it is also treated as a pattern, but repeated uses of
the same pattern are constrained to be different. For
example, this pattern:

  (e_!_1 e_!_1 e_!_1)

matches lists of three "e"s, but where all three of them are

Unlike the _ patters, the _!_ patterns do not bind names.

If _ names and _!_ are mixed, they are treated as
separate. That is, this pattern (e_1 e_!_1) matches just the
same things as (e e), but the second doesn't bind any

If the symbol otherwise has an underscore, it is an error.

_name_: The pattern:

  (name <symbol> <pattern>)

matches <pattern> and binds using it to the name <symbol>. 

_in-hole_: The (in-hole <pattern> <pattern>) matches the first
pattern. This match must include exactly one match against the `hole'
pattern. The `hole' pattern matches any sexpression. Then, the
sexpression that matched the hole pattern is used to match against the
second pattern.

_in-named-hole_: The pattern:

   (in-named-hole <symbol> <pattern> <pattern>) 

is similar in spirit to in-hole, except that it supports
languages with multiple holes in a context. The first
argument identifies which hole, using the (hole <symbol>)
pattern that this expression requires and the rest of the
arguments are just like in-hole. That is, if there are
multiple holes in a term, each matching a different (hole
<name>) pattern, this one selects only the holes that are
named by the first argument to in-named-hole.

_side-condition_: The (side-condition pattern guard) pattern matches
what the embedded pattern matches, and then the guard expression is
evaluated. If it returns #f, the pattern fails to match, and if it
returns anything else, the pattern matches. In addition, any
occurrences of `name' in the pattern are bound using `term-let'
(see below) in the guard.

_cross_: The (cross <symbol>) pattern is used for the compatible
closure functions. If the language contains a non-terminal with the
same name as <symbol>, the pattern (cross <symbol>) matches the
context that corresponds to the compatible closure of that

The (pattern-sequence ...) pattern matches a sexpression
list, where each pattern-sequence element matches an element
of the list. In addition, if a list pattern contains an
ellipsis, the ellipsis is not treated as a literal, instead
it matches any number of duplications of the pattern that
came before the ellipses (including 0). Furthermore, each
(name <symbol> <pattern>) in the duplicated pattern binds a
list of matches to <symbol>, instead of a single match.  (A
nested duplicated pattern creates a list of list matches,
etc.) Ellipses may be placed anywhere inside the row of
patterns, except in the first position or immediately after
another ellipses.

Multiple ellipses are allowed. For example, this pattern:

  ((name x a) ... (name y a) ...)

matches this sexpression:

  (a a)

three different ways. One where the first a in the pattern
matches nothing, and the second matches both of the
occurrences of `a', one where each named pattern matches a
single `a' and one where the first matches both and the
second matches nothing.

If the ellipses is named (ie, has an underscore and a name
following it, like a variable may), the pattern matcher
records the length of the list and ensures that any other
occurrences of the same named ellipses must have the same

As an example, this pattern:

  ((name x a) ..._1 (name y a) ..._1)

only matches this sexpression:

  (a a)

one way, with each named pattern matching a single a. Unlike
the above, the two patterns with mismatched lengths is ruled
out, due to the underscores following the ellipses.

Also, like underscore patterns above, if an underscore
pattern begins with ..._!_, then the lengths must be

Thus, with the pattern:

  ((name x a) ..._!_1 (name y a) ..._!_1)

and the expression

  (a a)

two matches occur, one where x is bound to '() and y is
bound to '(a a) and one where x is bound to '(a a) and y is
bound to '().

> (language (non-terminal pattern ...) ...)     SYNTAX

This form defines the grammar of a language. It allows the
definition of recursive patterns, much like a BNF, but for
regular-tree grammars. It goes beyond their expressive
power, however, because repeated `name' patterns and
side-conditions can restrict matches in a context-sensitive

As a simple example of a grammar, this is the lambda

  (define lc-lang
    (language (e (e e ...)
              (c (v ... c e ...)
              (v (lambda (x ...) e))
              (x (variable-except lambda))))

with non-terminals e for the expression language, x for
variables, c for the evaluation contexts and v for values.

> (extend-language <language> (non-terminal pattern ...) ...)

This form extends a language with some new, replaced, or
extended non-terminals. For example, this language:

  (define lc-num-lang
     (e ....     ;;; extend the previous `e' non-terminal
     (v ....
     (x (variable-except lambda +))))

extends lc-lang with two new alternatives for both the `e'
and `v' nonterminal, replaces the `x' non-terminal with a
new one, and carries the `c' non-terminal forward. 

The four-period ellipses indicates that the new language's
non-terminal has all of the alternatives from the original
language's non-terminal, as well as any new ones. If a
non-terminal occurs in both the base language and the
extension, the extension's non-terminal replaces the
originals. If a non-terminal only occurs in either the base
language, then it is carried forward into the
extension. And, of course, extend-language lets you add new
non-terminals to the language.

> language-nts :: (compiled-lang? . -> . (listof symbol?))

Returns the list of non-terminals (as symbols) that are
defined by this language.

> compiled-lang? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)

Returns #t if its argument was produced by `language', #f

> (term-let ([tl-pat expr] ...) body)           SYNTAX

Matches each given id pattern to the value yielded by
evaluating the corresponding expr and binds each variable in
the id pattern to the appropriate value (described
below). These bindings are then accessible to the `term'
syntactic form.

Identifier-patterns are terms in the following grammar:

    tl-pat ::= identifier
             | (tl-pat-ele ...)
tl-pat-ele ::= tl-pat
             | tl-pat ellipses

where ellipses is the literal symbol consisting of three
dots (and the ... indicates repetition as usual). If tl-pat
is an identifier, it matches any value and binds it to the
identifier, for use inside `term'. If it is a list, it
matches only if the value being matched is a list value and
only if every subpattern recursively matches the
corresponding list element. There may be a single ellipsis
in any list pattern; if one is present, the pattern before
the ellipses may match multiple adjacent elements in the
list value (possibly none).

> (term s-expr)                                 SYNTAX

This form is used for construction of new s-expressions in
the right-hand sides of reductions. It behaves similarly to
quasiquote except for a few special forms that are
recognized (listed below) and that names bound by `term-let' are
implicitly substituted with the values that those names were
bound to, expanding ellipses as in-place sublists (in the
same manner as syntax-case patterns).

For example,

(term-let ([body '(+ x 1)]
           [(expr ...) '(+ - (values * /))]
           [((id ...) ...) '((a) (b) (c d))])
  (term (let-values ([(id ...) expr] ...) body)))

evaluates to

'(let-values ([(a) +] 
              [(b) -] 
              [(c d) (values * /)]) 
   (+ x 1))

It is an error for a term variable to appear in an
expression with an ellipsis-depth different from the depth
with which it was bound by `term-let'. It is also an error
for two `term-let'-bound identifiers bound to lists of
different lengths to appear together inside an ellipsis.

The special forms recognized by term are:

  (in-hole a b)

    This is the dual to the pattern `in-hole' -- it accepts
    a context and an expression and uses `plug' to combine


   This produces the hole.

> (term-match <language> [<pattern> <expression] ...)   SYNTAX

This produces a procedure that accepts term (or quoted)
expressions and checks them against each pattern. The
function returns a list of the values of the expression
where the pattern matches. If one of the patterns matches
multiple times, the expression is evaluated multiple times,
once with the bindings in the pattern for each match.

> (term-match/single <language> [<pattern> <expression] ...)   SYNTAX

This produces a procedure that accepts term (or quoted)
expressions and checks them against each pattern. The
function returns the expression behind the first sucessful
match. If that pattern produces multiple matches, an error
is signaled. If no patterns match, an error is signaled.

> (reduction-relation <language> <reduction-case> ...)  SYNTAX

  <reduction-case> =  (--> <lhs-pattern> <rhs-exp> <extras> ...)
  <extras> = 
    | (fresh <fresh-clause> ...)
    | (side-condition <guard> ...)
  <fresh-clause> = 
    | ((var1 ...) (var2 ...))

Defines a reduction relation casewise, one case for each of
the clauses beginning with -->. Each of the <lhs-pattern>s
refers to the <language>, and binds variables in the
<rhs-exp>. The <rhs-exp> behave like the argument to `term'.

Following the lhs & rhs specs can be the name of the
reduction rule, declarations of some fresh variables, and/or
some side-conditions. The <name> can either be a literal
name (identifier), or a literal string. 

The fresh variables clause generates variables that do not
occur in the term being matched. If the <fresh-clause> is a
variable, that variable is used both as a binding in the
rhs-exp and as the prefix for the freshly generated

The second case of a <fresh-clause> is used when you want to
generate a sequence of variables. In that case, the ellipses
are literal ellipses; that is, you must actually write
ellipses in your rule. The variable var1 is used to
determine the number of variables generated and var1 must be
bound by the left-hand side of the rule. The variable var2
is used like the variable in first case of a <fresh-clause>,
namely it is used to determine the prefix of the generated
variables and it is bound in the right-hand side of the
reduction rule, but it is bound to a sequence of variables.

The side-conditions are expected to all hold, and have the
format of the second argument to the side-condition pattern,
described above.

As an example, this

   (--> (in-hole c_1 ((lambda (variable_i ...) e_body) v_i ...))
        (in-hole c_1 ,(foldl lc-subst 
                             (term e_body) 
                             (term (v_i ...)) 
                             (term (variable_i ...))))

defines a reduction relation for the lambda-calculus above.

> (reduction-relation 
    (<arrow-var> <lhs-pattern> <rhs-exp>) ...
    [(<arrow-var> <var> <var>) (<arrow> <lhs-pattern> <rhs-exp>)] ...)

Defines a reduction relation with shortcuts. As above, the
first section defines clauses of the reduction relation, but
instead of using -->, those clauses can use any identifier
for an arrow, as long as the identifier is bound after the
`where' clause. 

Each of the clauses after the `where' define new relations
in terms of other definitions after the `where' clause or in
terms of the main --> relation.

[ NOTE: `fresh' is always fresh with respect to the entire
  term, not just with respect to the part that matches the
  right-hand-side of the newly defined arrow. ]

For example, this

   (==> ((lambda (variable_i ...) e_body) v_i ...)
        ,(foldl lc-subst 
                (term e_body) 
                (term (v_i ...)) 
                (term (variable_i ...))))
   (==> (+ number_1 ...)
        ,(apply + (term (number_1 ...))))
   [(==> a b) (--> (in-hole c_1 a) (in-hole c_1 b))])
defines reductions for the lambda calculus with numbers,
where the ==> relation is defined by reducing in the context

> union-reduction-relations :: (reduction-relation? ... -> reduction-relation?)

Combines all of the argument reduction relations into a
single reduction relation that steps when any of the
arguments would have stepped.

> reduction-relation->rule-names :: 
     (reduction-relation? . -> . (listof (union false/c symbol?)))

Returns the names of all of the reduction relation's clauses
(or false if there is no name for a given clause).

> (compatible-closure <reduction-relation> <lang> <non-terminal>) SYNTAX

This accepts a reduction, a language, the name of a
non-terminal in the language and returns the compatible
closure of the reduction for the specified non-terminal.

> (context-closure <reduction-relation> <lang> <pattern>) SYNTAX

This accepts a reduction, a language, a pattern representing
a context (ie, that can be used as the first argument to
`in-hole'; often just a non-terminal) in the language and
returns the closure of the reduction in that context.

> (define-metafunction name <language-exp>
     [<pattern> <rhs-expression> (side-condition <exp>) ...] ...)     SYNTAX

The `define-metafunction' form builds a function on
sexpressions according to the pattern and right-hand-side
expressions. The first argument indicates the language used
to resolve non-terminals in the pattern expressions. Each of
the rhs-expressions is implicitly wrapped in `term'. In
addition, recursive calls in the right-hand side of the
metafunction clauses should appear inside `term'. 

If specified, the side-conditions are collected with an
`and' and used as guards on the case being matched. The
argument to each side-condition should be a Scheme
expression, and the pattern variables in the <pattern> are
bound in that expression.

As an example, this metafunction finds the free variables in
an expression in the lc-lang above:

  ;; free-vars : e -> (listof x)
  (define-metafunction free-vars
    [(e_1 e_2 ...) 
     ,(apply append (term ((free-vars e_1) (free-vars e_2) ...)))]
    [x_1 ,(list (term x_1))]
    [(lambda (x_1 ...) e_1)
     ,(foldr remq (term (free-vars e_1)) (term (x_1 ...)))])

The first argument to metafunction is the grammar (defined
above). Following that are three cases, one for each
variation of expressions (e in lc-lang). The right-hand side
of each clause begins with a comma, since they are
implicitly wrapped in `term'. The free variables of an
application are the free variables of each of the subterms;
the free variables of a variable is just the variable
itself, and the free variables of a lambda expression are
the free variables of the body, minus the bound parameters.

> plug :: (any? any? . -> . any)

The first argument to this function is an sexpression to
plug into. The second argument is the sexpression to replace
in the first argument. It returns the replaced term. This is
also used when a `term' sub-expression contains `in-hole'.

> apply-reduction-relation :: (reduction-relation? any? . -> . (listof any?))

Reduce accepts a list of reductions, a term, and returns a
list of terms that the term reduces to.

> apply-reduction-relation/tag-with-names ::
  (-> reduction-relation? 
      (listof (list/c (union false/c string?) any/c)))

Like apply-reduction-relation, but the result indicates the
names of the reductions that were used.

> apply-reduction-relation* ::
   (reduction-relation? any? . -> . (listof (listof any?))

apply-reduction-relation* accepts a list of reductions and a
term. It returns the results of following every reduction
path from the term. If there are infinite reduction
sequences starting at the term, this function will not

Along the way, if it encounters a term that reduces to
multiple terms and some of those terms are equal?  to each
other, it signals an error.

_reduction semantics, performance issue_

This is best used in a test suite. Typically, when a term
parses in multiple different ways, or reduces to the same
thing in multiple different ways, that can be a big slowdown
(in general, if some term parses in two different ways,
nesting that term can end up with exponentially many
different parses, leading to really abysmal performance).

To avoid this situation, try using apply-reduction-relation*
in the test suite for your semantics.

The most common source of multiple bad parses is using the
`variable' pattern. For example if your language is:

  (language (e variable
               (lambda (variable) e)
               (e e)))

then the term '(lambda (x) x) parses two different way; once
as a lambda, and once as an application of a variable named
`lambda'. To avoid this problem define the grammar like
this, using the `variable-except' pattern:

  (language (e x
               (lambda (x) e)
               (e e))
            (x (variable-except lambda)))

> (test-match lang pattern any)                  SYNTAX

Matches the pattern (in the language) against the third
expression. If it matches, this returns a list of mtch
structures describing the matches. If it fails, it returns

> (test-match lang pattern)                      SYNTAX

Builds a procedure for efficiently testing if expressions
match the pattern `pattern' in the language `lang'. The
procedures accepts a single expression and if the expresion
matches, it returns a list of mtch structures describing the
matches. If the match fails, the procedure returns #f.

> mtch? :: (any/c . -> . boolean?)

Determines if a value is a mtch structure.

> mtch-bindings :: (mtch? -> bindings?)

This returns a bindings structure (see below) that
binds the pattern variables in this match.

> mtch-context :: (mtch? . -> . any/c)

Returns the current context being built up for a
match. Usually, this is the same as the original term being

> mtch-hole :: (mtch? . -> . (union none? any/c))

Returns the current contents of the hole for this match (if
there was a decomposition). Usually returns none.

> variable-not-in :: (any? symbol? . -> . symbol?)

This helper function accepts an sexpression and a
variable. It returns a variable not in the sexpression with
a prefix the same as the second argument.

> variables-not-in :: (any? (listof symbol?) . -> . (listof symbol?))

This function, like variable-not-in, makes variables that do
no occur in its first argument, but it returns a list of
such variables, one for each variable in its second

Does not expect the input symbols to be distinct, but does
produce variables that are always distinct.

> make-bindings :: ((listof rib?) . -> . bindings?)
> bindings? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
> bindings-table :: (bindings? . -> . (listof rib?))

Constructor, predicate, and selector functions for the bindings values
returned by test-match.  Each bindings value represents the bindings
established for a single parse of the term; multiple such parses may be
possible in some situations.

> make-rib :: (symbol? any? . -> . rib?)
> rib? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
> rib-name :: (rib? . -> . symbol?)
> rib-exp :: (rib? . -> . any?)

Constructor, predicate, and selector functions for the rib values contained
within a bindings.  Each rib associates a name with an s-expression from
the language, or a list of such s-expressions, if the (name ...) clause is
followed by an ellipsis.  Nested ellipses produce nested lists.

> set-cache-size! :: (union #f positive-integer) -> void

Changes the cache size; a #f disables the cache
entirely. The default size is 350.

The cache is per-pattern (ie, each pattern has a cache of
size at most 350 (by default)) and is a simple table that
maps expressions to how they matched the pattern. When the
cache gets full, it is thrown away and a new cache is

_Debugging PLT Redex Programs_

It is easy to write grammars and reduction rules that are
subtly wrong and typically such mistakes result in examples
that just get stuck when viewed in a `traces' window.

The best way to debug such programs is to find an expression
that looks like it should reduce but doesn't and try to find
out what pattern is failing to match. To do so, use the
test-match special form, described above.

In particular, first ceck to see if the term matches the
main non-terminal for your system (typically the expression
or program nonterminal). If it does not, try to narrow down
the expression to find which part of the term is failing to
match and this will hopefully help you find the problem. If
it does match, figure out which reduction rule should have
matched, presumably by inspecting the term. Once you have
that, extract a pattern from the left-hand side of the
reduction rule and do the same procedure until you find a
small example that shoudl work but doesn't (but this time
you might also try simplifying the pattern as well as
simplifying the expression).


The _gui.ss_ library provides the following functions:

> (stepper language reductions expr)

This function opens a stepper window for exploring the
behavior of its third argument in the reduction system
described by its first two arguments.

> (traces language reductions expr [pp] [colors])

This function calls traces/multiple with language, reductions
and (list expr), and its optional arguments if supplied.

> (traces/multiple lang reductions exprs [pp] [colors])

This function calls traces/pred with the predicate
(lambda (x) #t)

> (traces/pred lang reductions exprs pred [pp] [colors])
  lang : language
  reductions : (listof reduction)
  exprs : (listof sexp)
  pred : (or/c (sexp -> any)
               (sexp term-node? any))
  pp : (or/c (any -> string)
             (any output-port number (is-a?/c text%) -> void))
  colors : (listof (list string string))

This function opens a new window and inserts each
expr. Then, reduces the terms until either
reduction-steps-cutoff (see below) different terms are
found, or no more reductions can occur. It inserts each new
term into the gui. Clicking the `reduce' button reduces
until reduction-steps-cutoff more terms are found.

The pred function indicates if a term has a particular
property. If it returns #f, the term is displayed with a
pink background. If it returns a string or a color% object,
the term is displayed with a background of that color (using
the-color-database<%> to map the string to a color). If it
returns any other value, the term is displayed normally. If
the pred function accepts two arguments, a term-node
corresponding to the term is passed to the predicate. This
lets the predicate function explore the (names of the)
reductions that led to this term, using term-node-children,
term-node-parents, and term-node-labels.

The pred function may be called more than once per node. In
particular, it is called each time an edge is added to a
node. The latest value returned determines the color.

If the pp function can take four arguments, it renders its
first argument into the port (its second argument) with 
width at most given by the number (its third argument). The
final argument is the text where the port is connected -- 
characters written to the port go to the end of the editor.
If the pp function cannot take four arguments, it is 
instead invoked with a single argument, the s-expression to
render, and it must return a string which the GUI will use
as a representation of the given expression for display.

The default pp, provided as default-pretty-printer, uses
MzLib's pretty-print function. See in the
examples directory for an example use of the one-argument
form of this argument and in the examples
directory for an example use of its four-argument form.

The colors argument, if provided, specifies a list of
reduction-name/color-string pairs. The traces gui will color
arrows drawn because of the given reduction name with the
given color instead of using the default color.

You can save the contents of the window as a postscript file
from the menus.

> term-node-children :: (-> term-node (listof term-node))

Returns a list of the children (ie, terms that this term
reduces to) of the given node.

Note that this function does not return all terms that this
term reduces to -- only those that are currently in the

> term-node-parents :: (-> term-node (listof term-node))

Returns a list of the parents (ie, terms that reduced to the
current term) of the given node.

Note that this function does not return all terms that
reduce to this one -- only those that are currently in the

> term-node-labels :: (-> term-node (listof (union false/c string)))

Returns a list of the names of the reductions that led to
the given node, in the same order as the result of
term-node-parents. If the list contains #f, that means that
the corresponding step does not have a label.

> term-node-set-color! :: 
   (-> term-node? 
       (or/c string? (is-a?/c color%) false/c)

Changes the highlighting of the node; if its second argument
is #f, the coloring is removed, otherwise the color is set
to the specified color% object or the color named by the
string. The color-database<%> is used to convert the string
to a color% object.

> term-node-set-red! :: (-> term-node boolean void?)

Changes the highlighting of the node; if its second argument
is #t, the term is colored pink, if it is #f, the term is
not colored specially.

> term-node-expr :: (-> term-node any)

Returns the expression in this node.

> term-node? :: (-> any boolean)

Recognizes term nodes.

> (reduction-steps-cutoff)
> (reduction-steps-cutoff number)

A parameter that controls how many steps the `traces' function
takes before stopping.

> (initial-font-size)
> (initial-font-size number)

A parameter that controls the initial font size for the terms shown
in the GUI window.

> (initial-char-width)
> (initial-char-width number)

A parameter that determines the initial width of the boxes
where terms are displayed (measured in characters)

> (dark-pen-color color-or-string)
> (dark-pen-color) => color-or-string

> (dark-brush-color color-or-string)
> (dark-brush-color) => color-or-string

> (light-pen-color color-or-string)
> (light-pen-color) => color-or-string

> (light-brush-color color-or-string)
> (light-brush-color) => color-or-string

These four parameters control the color of the edges in the graph.


The _pict.ss_ library provides the following functions:

> language->pict ::
    (-> compiled-lang? 
        (or/c false/c (listof symbol?))

> language->ps ::
    (-> compiled-lang?
        (or/c false/c (listof symbol?))
        (union path? string?)

The pict library also provides other functions for
metafunction pict generation and for reduction rule pict
generation, but they are likely to change soon, so use at
your own risk.


The _subst.ss_ library provides these names:

> (subst (match-pattern subst-rhs ...) ...)      SYNTAX

The result of this form is a function that performs capture
avoiding substitution for a particular (sexp-based)
language. The function accepts three arguments, a variable,
a term to substitute and a term to substitute into.

Each of the `match-pattern's specify the forms of
the language and the `subst-rhs's specify what kind of form
it is.  Each of the match-patterns are in (lib ""
"match")'s pattern language and any variable that they bind
are available in the <scheme-expression>'s described below.

The language of the subst-rhs follows.

> (variable)

  this means that the rhs for this form is a symbol that
  should be treated like a variable. Nothing may follow

> (constant)

  this means that the rhs for this form is a constant that
  cannot be renamed. Nothing may follow this.

> (all-vars <scheme-expression>)

This form indicates that this pattern in the language binds
the variables produced by the

Immediately following this in a subst-rhs must be a (build
...) form and some number of (subterm ...) or (subterms ...)

> (build <scheme-expression>)

This form must come right after an (all-vars ...) form and
before any (subterm ...) or (subterms ...) forms.

This form tells subst how to reconstruct this term. The
<scheme-expression> must evaluate to a procedure that
accepts the (possibly renamed) variables from the all-vars
clause, and one argument for each of the subterms that
follow this declaration (with subterms flattened into the
argument list) in the same order that the subterm or
subterms declarations are listed.

> (subterm <scheme-expression> <scheme-expression>)

The first <scheme-expression> must be a list of variables
that is a sub-list of the variables in the all-vars
expression. The second expression must be an sexp
corresponding to one of the subexpressions of this
expression (matched by the match-patten for this clause of

> (subterms <scheme-expression> <scheme-expression>)

The first <scheme-expression> must be a list of variables
that is a sub-list of the variables in the all-vars
expression. The second expression must be an sexp
corresponding to one of the subexpressions of this
expression (matched by the match-patten for this clause of

Consider this example of a substitution procedure for the
lambda calculus:

  (define lc-subst
     [`(lambda ,vars ,body)
      (all-vars vars)
      (build (lambda (vars body) `(lambda ,vars ,body)))
      (subterm vars body)]
     [(? symbol?) (variable)]
     [(? number?) (constant)]
     [`(,fun ,@(args ...))
      (all-vars '())
      (build (lambda (vars fun . args) `(,fun ,@args)))
      (subterm '() fun)
      (subterms '() args)]))

The first clause matches lambda expressions with any number
of arguments and says that there is one subterm, the body of
the lambda, and that all of the variables are bound in it.

The second clause matches symbols and indicates that they
are variables.

The third clause matches numbers and indicates that they are

The final clause matches function applications. The
`all-vars' shows that applications introduce no new
names. The build procedure reconstructs a new application
form. The subterm declaration says that the function
position is a subterm with no variables bound in it. The
subterms declaration says that all of the arguments are
subterms and that they do not introduce any new terms.

In this program, lc-subst is bound to a function that does
the substitution. The first argument is the variable to
substitute for, the second is the term to substitute and the
final argument is the term to substitute into. For example,
this call:

  (lc-subst 'q 
            '(lambda (x) y) 
            '((lambda (y) (y q)) (lambda (y) y)))

produces this output:

  '((lambda (y@) (y@ (lambda (x) y))) (lambda (y) y))

This library also provides:

> (plt-subst (match-pattern subst-rhs ...) ...)      SYNTAX

This is identical to subst, described above, except that
the pattern language used is that from (lib ""), 
instead of (lib "").

> subst/proc
> alpha-rename 
> free-vars/memoize

Theses functions are the procedure-based interface to
substitution that subst expands to and uses.


The _iswim.ss_ module in the "examples" sub-collection defines a
grammar and reductions from "Programming Languages and Lambda Calculi"
by Felleisen and Flatt.

       Example S-expression forms of ISWIM expressions:
         Book                     S-expr
         ----                     ------
         (lambda x . x)           ("lam" x x)
         (+ '1` '2`)              ("+" 1 2)
         ((lambda y y) '7`)       (("lam" y y) 7)

       CK machine:
         Book                     S-expr
         ----                     ------
         <(lambda x . x), mt>     (("lam" x x) : "mt")

       CEK machine:
         Book                     S-expr
         ----                     ------
         <<(lambda x . x),        ((("lam" x x)
           {<X,<5,{}>>}>,           : ((X (5 : ()))))
          mt>                      : "mt")
       The full grammar:

         (language (M (M M)
                      (o1 M)
                      (o2 M M)
                   (V X
                      ("lam" variable M)
                   (X variable)
                   (b number)
                   (o1 "add1" "sub1" "iszero")
                   (o2 "+" "-" "*" "^")
                   (on o1 o2)
                   ;; Evaluation contexts:
                   (E hole
                      (E M)
                      (V E)
                      (o1 E)
                      (o2 E M)
                      (o2 V E))
                   ;; Continuations (CK machine):
                   (k "mt"
                      ("fun" V k)
                      ("arg" M k)
                      ("narg" (V ... on) (M ...) k))
                   ;; Environments and closures (CEK):
                   (env ((X = vcl) ...))
                   (cl (M : env))
                   (vcl (V- : env))
                   ;; Values that are not variables:
                   (V- ("lam" variable M)
                   ;; Continuations with closures (CEK);
                   (k- "mt"
                       ("fun" vcl k-)
                       ("arg" cl k-)
                       ("narg" (vcl ... on) (cl ...) k-)))
       The following are provided by "":

               Grammar and substitution:
>                 iswim-grammar :: compiled-lang?
>                 M? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 V? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 o1? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 o2? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 on? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 k? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 env? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 cl? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 vcl? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 k-? :: (any? . -> . boolean?)
>                 iswim-subst :: (M? symbol? M? . -> . M?)
>                 empty-env :: env?
>                 env-extend :: (env? symbol? vcl? . -> . env?)
>                 env-lookup :: (env? symbol? . -> . (union false? vcl?))
>                 beta_v :: reduction-relation?
>                 delta :: reduction-relation?
>                 ->v :: reduction-relation?
>                 :->v :: reduction-relation?
>                 if0 :: (M? M? M? . -> . M?)
>                 true :: M?
>                 false :: M?
>                 mkpair :: M?
>                 fst :: M?
>                 snd :: M?
>                 Y_v :: M?
>                 sum :: M?
>                 delta*1 :: (o1? V? . -> . (union false? V?))
                     delta as a function for unary operations.
>                 delta*2 :: (o2? V? V? . -> . (union false? V?))
                     delta as a function for binary operations.
>                 delta*n :: (on? (listof V?) . -> . (union false? V?))
                     delta as a function for any operation.


The _generator.ss_ module provides a tool for generating instances of
a grammar non-terminal.

> lang->generator-table :: (lang?
                            (listof number?)
                            (listof symbol?)
                            (listof string?)
                            (listof symbol?)
                            . -> .

  Prepares generator information for a particular language,
  given a set of numbers to use for the `number' keyword, 
  a set of symbols for `variable' and `variable-except',
  and a set of string for `string'.

  The fifth argument lists keywords that appear in the grammar but
  that should be skipped (to limit the generation space). The last
  argument should be 0, and it is currently ignored.

> for-each-generated :: (generator-table?
                         (any? number? . -> . any)
                         . -> . any)

  The first argument is a procedure to call with a series of generated
  grammar instances and each term's size. Instances are generated from
  smallest to largest; the size of an instance is roughly the size of
  the proof tree that demonstrates grammar membership.

  The second argument is a generator table created with

  The third argument is a symbol, the name of a non-terminal for which
  instances should be generated.

> for-each-generated/size :: (generator-table?
                              (any? number? . -> . any)
                              . -> . any)

  Like `for-each-generated', except minimum and maximum sizes are
  provided, and the order of generation is arbitrary (i.e., some
  larger instances may be generated before smaller instances).


_schemeunit.ss_: This library provides two 'test's and two
'check's (in Schemeunit terminology):

> (test-reduces reduction-relation term term)

   This check reduces its second argument according to the
   reductions in the first argument, and compares it to the
   final argument. It expects the reductions to only produce
   a single result.

   It uses apply-reduction-rule* to do the reductions (as above).

> (check-reduces reduction-relation term term)

  The 'check' version of test-reduces.

> (test-reduces/multiple reduction-relation term (listof term))

   This check reduces its second argument according to the
   reductions in the first argument, and compares the
   results to the final argument. The reductions may produce
   multiple results and those results are expected to be the
   same as the list in the last argument.

   It uses apply-reduction-relation* to do the reductions (as above).

> (check-reduces/multiple reduction-relation term (listof term))

   The 'check' version of test-reduces/multiple.