spgsql: PostgreSQL connectivity

_spgsql_: PostgreSQL connectivity

By Ryan Culpepper (ryanc at plt-scheme dot org)

This manual documents spgsql version 5.2 (PLaneT version 2 2).

Keywords: _spgsql_, _postgresql_, _postgres_, _database_, _db_


 - Introduction
 - Connection API
 - Query API
 - SQL Types and Conversions
 - Usage Notes
 - Changes from version 4
 - Acknowledgments


The spgsql library provides a high-level interface to PostgreSQL
database servers. It does not rely on any locally-installed PostgreSQL
client libraries: spgsql is everything you need to connect PLT Scheme
to a PostgreSQL server.

The spgsql library is object-based, using (lib "") objects,
but connection objects do not contain query state, only connection
state. The query methods are functional in spirit: queries return
results; they do not stow them away in the connection for later
manipulation and retrieval. The higher-order query methods are
patterned after the standard higher-order list processing functions.

Since spgsql does not use foreign connectivity libraries, it works
seamlessly with PLT Scheme's resource management systems. The library
communicates with servers using normal, custodian-managed
ports. Consequently, communication blocks only the thread performing
the communication, unlike some FFI-based approaches.

Spgsql 5 (that is, PLaneT major version 2) only works with PostgreSQL
servers version 7.4 and later. For older servers, use spgsql 4
(PLaneT major version 1).

Connection API

Use the following require line to load spgsql:

  (require (planet "" ("schematics" "spgsql.plt" 2 0)))

Of course, you must also require (lib "") in order to call a
connection's methods.

Creating connections

Use the following procedures to create a connection:

> (connect <connection-keyword-arguments>)
  connect : <connection-keyword-arguments> -> connection

  Creates a connection to a PostgreSQL server. The 'connect' procedure
  recognizes the keyword arguments listed below. Only the user and
  database arguments are mandatory; the other arguments have default
  values. If neither server hostname nor socket path is specified, the
  connection defaults to a TCP connection to "localhost".

  When successful, 'connect' returns a connection object. If the
  connection cannot be made, 'connect' raises an exception.


      The server to make a TCP connection to. Defaults to "localhost".


      The TCP port the server is listening on. Defaults to 5432.


      The path of the local socket to connect to. You cannot specify
      both the socket option and the server ano/or port option.

      Local socket connections are only available on Linux (x86) and
      Mac OS X, at present.


      The database user name to connect as. Mandatory argument.


      The database to connect to. Mandatory argument.


      The user's password. Defaults to #f, meaning no password. If the
      backend demands a password and none was given, 'connect' raises
      an authentication error.


      Defaults to #f. Unless explicitly set to true, spgsql will raise
      an error if the backend requests the user's password to be sent
      un-hashed (regardless of whether the connection is encrypted
      with SSL).


      Determines whether to attempt an SSL connection and whether to
      fall back to non-SSL if that fails. The default is 'no. Only
      compatible with TCP connections.

      - 'yes: attempt an SSL connection and raise an error if
         the backend refuses SSL
      - 'optional: attempt an SSL connection but fall back to
         non-SSL mode if the backend refuses SSL
      - 'no: do not attempt SSL connection

    (connect #:server "db.mysite.tla"
             #:port 5432
             #:database "webappdb"
             #:user "webapp"
             #:password "ultra5ecret")

    (connect #:user "me"
             #:database "me"
             #:password "icecream")

    ;; Typical socket path on some PostgreSQL configurations
    (connect #:socket "/var/run/postgresql/.s.PGSQL.5432"
             #:user "me"
             #:database "me")

A connection contains the following administrative methods:

> (send a-connection disconnect)
  disconnect : -> void

  Disconnects from the server.

> (send a-connection connected?)
  connected? : -> boolean

  Returns true if the connection is connected.

Query API

High-level Query Interface

Spgsql implements a high-level, functional query interface. Once
connected, connection objects are relatively stateless. When a query
method is invoked, it either returns a result or, if the query caused
an error, raises an exception. Different query methods impose
different constraints on the query results and offer different
mechanisms for processing the results.

The spgsql query interface does not expose any low-level
machinery. Programmers who want cursors should use SQL-language
cursors via the "DECLARE CURSOR", "MOVE", and "FETCH" statements.

A Statement is one of:
 - a string containing a single SQL statement
 - an opaque value returned by 'prepare' or 'prepare-multiple' (see below)

A connection supports the following high-level query methods:

> (send a-connection exec a-statement ...)
  exec : Statement ... -> void

  Executes SQL statements for effect and discards the result(s).
  Calling 'exec' on multiple statements at once may be more efficient
  than calling 'exec' multiple times on the statements individually.

  Note: The set of statements passed to 'exec' are executed within
  their own "mini-transaction"; if any statement fails, the effects of
  all previous statements in the set are rolled back.

    (send c exec "create table the_numbers (n integer, name varchar)"
                 "insert into the_numbers (n, name) values (0, 'zero')")

> (send a-connection query-list a-statement)
  query-list : Statement -> (list-of value)

  Executes a SQL query which must return a recordset of exactly one
  column; returns the list of (single) values from the query.

> (send a-connection query-row a-statement)
  query-row : Statement -> (vector-of value)

  Executes a SQL query which must return a recordset of exactly one
  row; returns its (single) row result as a vector.

> (send a-connection query-maybe-row a-statement)
  query-maybe-row : Statement -> (vector-of value) or #f

  Like 'query-row', but the query may return zero rows; in that case,
  the method returns false.

> (send a-connection query-value a-statement)
  query-value : Statement -> value

  Executes a SQL query which must return a recordset of exactly one
  column and exactly one row; returns its single value result.

> (send a-connection query-maybe-value a-statement)
  query-maybe-value : Statement -> value or #f

  Like 'query-value', but the query may return zero rows; in that
  case, the method returns false.

> (send a-connection map a-statement proc)
  map : Statement (field ... -> 'a) -> (list-of 'a)

  Executes a SQL query and applies the given function to the contents
  of each row, returning a list of results.

> (send a-connection for-each a-statement proc)
  for-each : Statement (field ... -> void) -> void

  Executes a SQL query and applies the given function to the contents
  of each row, discarding the results.

> (send a-connection mapfilter a-statement map-proc filter-proc)
  mapfilter : Statement (field ... -> 'a) (field ... -> boolean) -> (list-of 'a)

  Like 'map', but applies the map procedure (given first) to only
  those rows which satisfy the given predicate (given second).

> (send a-connection fold a-statement proc init)
  fold : Statement ('a field ... -> 'a) 'a -> 'a

  Left fold over the results of the query.

Connections also support methods for preparing parameterized
queries. A parameterized query may be executed any number of times
with different values for its parameters.

A parameterized query is written with positional arguments. For example:

  select * from the_numbers where num > $1;

A Preparable is:
  - a string containing a single SQL statement

The following methods provide a convenient functional interface for
common uses of parameterized prepared statements:

> (send a-connection prepare-exec a-preparable)
  prepare-exec : Preparable -> param ... -> void

> (send a-connection prepare-query-list a-preparable)
  prepare-query-list : Preparable -> param ... -> (list-of value)

> (send a-connection prepare-query-row a-preparable)
  prepare-query-row : Preparable -> param ... -> (vector-of value)

> (send a-connection prepare-query-maybe-row a-preparable)
  prepare-query-maybe-row : Preparable -> param ... -> (vector-of value) or #f

> (send a-connection prepare-query-value a-preparable)
  prepare-query-value : Preparable -> param ... -> value

> (send a-connection prepare-query-maybe-value a-preparable)
  prepare-query-maybe-value : Preparable -> param ... -> value or #f

> (send a-connection prepare-map a-preparable proc)
  prepare-map : Preparable ('a ... -> 'b) -> param ... -> (list-of 'b)

> (send a-connection prepare-for-each a-preparable proc)
  prepare-for-each : Preparable ('a ... -> void) -> param ... -> void

> (send a-connection prepare-mapfilter a-preparable map-proc filter-proc)
  prepare-mapfilter : Preparable ('a ... -> 'b) ('a ... -> boolean)
                   -> param ... -> (list-of 'b)

> (send a-connection prepare-fold a-preparable proc init)
  prepare-fold : Preparable ('b 'a ... -> 'b) 'b -> param ... -> 'b

  Each of these methods prepares the parameterized SQL statement for
  later execution and returns a closure. The closure accepts the
  parameter values and executes the prepared statement, processing the
  results like the corresponding query method.

  A prepared-statement closure may be executed any number of times.
  It is possible to prepare a statement that contains no parameters;
  the resulting procedure should be called with zero arguments.

  Unlike 'exec', 'prepare-exec' only accepts a single statement.

Low-level Query API

In addition to the high-level query API, spgsql connections support
the following methods for preparing, binding, and executing queries:

A QueryResult is one of:
  - (make-SimpleResult string)
  - (make-Recordset (list-of FieldInfo) (list-of (vector-of datum)))

A FieldInfo is (make-FieldInfo string)

> (struct SimpleResult (command))
> (struct Recordset (info data))
> (struct FieldInfo (name))


> (send a-connection query a-statement)
  query : Statement -> QueryResult

> (send a-connection query-multiple some-statements)
  query-multiple : (list-of Statement) -> (list-of QueryResult)

  Executes queries, returning structures that describe the
  results. Unlike the high-level query methods, 'query-multiple'
  supports a mixture of recordset-returning queries and effect-only

> (send a-connection prepare a-preparable)
  prepare : Preparable -> PreparedStatement

> (send a-connection prepare-multiple some-preparables)
  prepare-multiple : (list-of Preparable) -> (list-of PreparedStatement)

  Prepare parameterized queries. The resulting PreparedStatements are
  tied to the connection object that prepared them; it is an error to
  use them with any other connection.

> (send a-connection bind-prepared-statement a-preparedstatement params)
  bind-prepared-statement : PreparedStatement (list-of param) -> Statement

  Fill in a parameterized prepared query with its parameters. The
  resulting Statement can be executed with 'query-multiple' or any of
  the high-level query methods, but it must be used with the same
  connection object.

    (let ([get-name-pst
           (send c prepare "select name from the_numbers where n = $1")])
      (let ([get-name1 (send c bind-prepared-statement get-name-pst (list 1))]
            [get-name2 (send c bind-prepared-statement get-name-pst (list 2))])
        (send c query-multiple (list get-name1 get-name2))))
    (list (make-Recordset (list (make-FieldInfo "name")) (list "one"))
          (make-Recordset (list (make-FieldInfo "name")) (list "two")))

SQL Types and Conversions

For most basic SQL types, connections automatically process query
results and paramterized query parameters to convert between Scheme
values and SQL external representations. When there is no automatic
conversion to or from a SQL type, you must supply or accept a string
containing the SQL value's external representation.

  ;; Basic datatypes
  (send c query-value "select 18") => 18
  (send c query-value "select false") => #f

  ;; Unsupported conversions
  (send c query-value "select '{1,2,3}'::int[]") => "{1,2,3}"
  (send c query-value "select point (1,2)") => "(1,2)"

SQL NULL values are always translated into the unique 'sql-null' value.

> sql-null

> (sql-null? a-value)
  sql-null? : value -> boolean

  A special value and predicate used to represent NULL values in
  query results.


Here are the SQL types known to spgsql with their corresponding Scheme
representations. The type is listed in the notation accepted by
spgsql; it generally corresponds to the SQL notation with spaces
replaced by dashes.

  Type Name                   Aliases                 Scheme datatype
  --------------------------- ----------------------- ---------------
  bigint                      int8                    exact integer
  bigserial                   serial8                 exact integer
  boolean                     bool                    boolean
  bytea                                               bytes
  character-varying           varchar                 string
  character                   char                    string
  date                                                sql-date
  double-precision            double float8           inexact real
  integer                     int int4                exact integer
  numeric                     decimal                 number
  real                        float4                  inexact real
  smallint                    int2                    exact integer
  serial                      serial4                 exact integer
  text                                                string
  time-without-time-zone      time                    sql-time
  time-with-time-zone         timetz                  sql-time
  timestamp-without-time-zone timestamp               sql-timestamp
  timestamp-with-time-zone    timestamptz             sql-timestamp

  oid                                                 exact integer

A SQL value of type 'numeric'/'decimal' is always converted to either
an exact rational or +nan.0. When converting Scheme values to SQL
'numeric', exact rational values representable by finite decimal
strings are converted without loss of precision. Other real values are
converted to decimals with a loss of precision.

PostgreSQL defines other datatypes, such as network addresses and
various geometric concepts. These are not supported by spgsql.

Array types are also not currently supported by spgsql. Support may be
added in a future version.

SQL Data

Spgsql provides datatypes for a few SQL types that have no close
analogues in Scheme.

> (struct sql-date (year month day))
> (struct sql-time (hour minute second nanosecond tz))
> (struct sql-timestamp (year month day hour minute second nanosecond tz))

  Representations of SQL dates, times, and timestamps. The 'tz'
  field may be false to indicate no time zone information.

  The sql-time and sql-timestamp structures store fractional seconds
  to nanosecond accuracy for compatibility with SRFI 19. Not, however,
  that PostgreSQL only supports microsecond time accuracy. Fractional
  seconds are rounded to the nearest microsecond when they are stored
  in the database.

> (sql-datetime->srfi-date a-sql-date-or-time)
  sql-datetime->srfi-date : (union sql-date sql-time sql-timestamp) -> date

> (srfi-date->sql-date a-date)
  srfi-date->sql-date : date -> sql-date

> (srfi-date->sql-time a-date)
  srfi-date->sql-time : date -> sql-time

> (srfi-date->sql-time-tz a-date)
  srfi-date->sql-time-tz : date -> sql-time

> (srfi-date->sql-timestamp a-date)
  srfi-date->sql-timestamp : date -> sql-timestamp

> (srfi-date->sql-timestamp-tz a-date)
  srfi-date->sql-timestamp-tz : date -> sql-timestamp

  Converts between this library's date and time values and SRFI 19's
  date values. SRFI dates store more information than SQL dates and
  times, so converting a SQL time to a SRFI date, for example, puts
  zeroes in the year, month, and day fields.

Creating SQL Strings

The 'format-sql' and 'concat-sql' macros help construct SQL query
strings safely:

> (format-sql format-string ... type-spec ...) SYNTAX

  Encodes each tagged datum to a SQL literal expression and inserts it
  into the format string. The result is a string. A type-spec has one
  of the following forms, categorized by the SQL statement context it
  is used in:

  SQL literal expressions:

    - [type-identifier expr]

      Converts the result of 'expr' to the SQL type named by
      'type-identifier'. The 'type-identifier' must be a syntactic
      identifier naming a SQL type, and 'expr' must evaluate to a
      value of the appropriate Scheme datatype.

      Example: This code generates a query that returns all numbers 
      greater than the value of the Scheme variable 'lower-bound':
        (format-sql "select n from the_numbers where n >= ~a"
                    [int4 lower-bound])

      Warning: the type name is not checked. You must avoid specifying
      type names that contain SQL delimiters such as ')' or '--'.

    - [#:trust expr type-string]

      Performs minimal escaping on the value of 'expr', which must be
      a string that is a suitable external representation for the SQL
      type named by 'type-string'.

      Example: Generates a query for boxes containing the origin:
        (format-sql "select b from some_boxes where ~a <@ b"
                    [#:trust "(0,0)" "point"]

      Warning: the type name is not checked. You must avoid specifying
      type names that contain SQL delimiters such as ')' or '--'.

  SQL identifiers:

    - [#:name expr]
    - [#:Name expr]

      Quotes a SQL identifier (eg, table name or field name). The
      expression must produce a string. Using '#:name' performs the
      default case conversion on the name. The following are

        [#:name "table"] = [#:name "TABLE"] = [#:name "TaBlE"]

      If '#:Name' is used, the case of the name is preserved.

        (format-sql "select n from ~a"
                    [#:name "the_numbers"])

  SQL code:

    - [#:sql expr]

      Splices in a string containing arbitrary SQL code. No escaping
      of is done, but whitespace is added around the spliced code.

        (format-sql "select n from ~a ~a"
                    [#:name "the_numbers"]
                    [#:sql (if only-pos? "where n > 0" "")])

  Note: The format string must contain only '~a' placeholders (using
  '~s' placeholders would generally result in invalid SQL). Literal
  '~' characters may be written as '~~'.

> (concat-sql string-or-type-spec ...) SYNTAX

  Composes a SQL string by concatenating the literal strings and the
  interpretations of the type-specs (as above; see 'format-sql').

  Whitespace is added after every fragment. Unlike 'format-sql', the
  '~' character has no special meaning within the strings.

    (concat-sql "select n"
                "from" [#:name "the_numbers"]
                [#:sql (if only-pos? "where n > 0" "")])

Usage Notes


Connections are internally synchronized: it is safe to perform
concurrent queries on the same connection object from different
threads (by direct query methods or prepared query procedures).

The extent of the synchronization covers only the communication with
the server, not the processing of returned results. Clients requiring
synchronized processing of query results must implement the
synchronization themselves.

(Synchronization was added in spgsql version 5.1.)

Connecting to a Server

By default, many PostgreSQL servers only listen on local domain
sockets. spgsql 5 provides experimental support for communication over
local domain sockets, but only on Linux (x86) and Mac OS X.

To find the socket path, look in the directory named by the
'unix_socket_directory' variable in postgresql.conf.  For example, on
Ubuntu Feisty Fawn running PostgreSQL 8.2, the socket directory is
'/var/run/postgresql' and the special file is at

If local socket communication is not available, the server must be
reconfigured to listen to a TCP port and restarted. See the PostgreSQL
manual for information on doing this.

Passwords and Authentication

PostgreSQL also comes with a configuration file (pg_hba.conf) which
lists accepted authentication methods. It is often necessary to add
lines to this file that describe what authentication method is used
for TCP connections. By default, spgsql only supports cleartext and
md5-hashed passwords, and it does not send cleartext passwords unless
explicitly ordered to.

Server Parameters

The spgsql library only understands the the UTF-8 client encoding.
Connections set the encoding when they are created; no server
configuration or user action is necessary. This library does not
support other encodings. If the server changes the client
encoding---for example, in response to a SET statement issued by
the user---the connection automatically disconnects and raises an

Changes from version 4

Version 5 of spgsql is not source-compatible with prior versions. This
section outlines the substantial differences.


The old 'connect' procedure with fixed arguments has been replaced by
a procedure taking keyword arguments.

Support for crypt()-passwords has been dropped.


All queries are now restricted to a single SQL statement. Support for
COPY statements has been dropped.

The old low-level query methods, such as 'query', have been changed or
removed. The new low-level query methods use different datatypes.

The high-level query methods are mostly the same. The 'fold-right'
method has been dropped, and the old misnamed 'query-tuple' method has
been renamed 'query-row' in anticipation of a proper tuple
representation in the future.

Type conversions are enabled automatically and cannot be
disabled. Unconverted data is represented as strings. Future
releases may add the capability to configure type conversions.

The 'sql-format' procedure has been replaced with the 'format-sql'

Errors and Events

The exception hierarchy has been dropped. There is no way to tell a
fatal error from a nonfatal error by the exception object; use the
'connected?' method instead. Generally, internal errors and
communication errors are fatal; query errors and user errors are not.

The 'set-notification-handler' and 'set-notice-handler' methods have
been dropped. Future releases may restore the capability to react to
asynchronous events.


Thanks to Dave Gurnell and Noel Welsh for help implementing SSL
connections. Further thanks to Dave Gurnell for helping to implement,
test, and document date and time handling. Thanks to Mike Burns and
Doug Orleans for help updating spgsql to PLT Scheme 30x.