The SICP Picture Language (require (planet "sicp.ss" ("soegaard" "sicp.plt" 2 1))) This package provides support for the picture language used in SICP. The non-standard primitives cons-stream and amb are also provided. 1. Introduction The SICP Picture Language is a small language for drawing pictures. It shows the power of data abstraction and closure. The picture language stems from Peter Henderson’s 1982 paper "Functional Geometry" and was included by Hal Abelson in "Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs". Before using this package, read section 2.2.4 of SICP, which is an excellent introduction to the ideas of the picture language. This manual meant as a reference guide. Peter Henderson has written an updated version of "Functional Geometry", which explains how to construct the Escher fish image. Note: The primitives cons-stream and amb needed in other chapters of SICP are also provided. 2. Reference The basic concept of the picture language is a painter. A painter draws it’s image (shifted and scaled) within a frame given by a parallelogram. Painters can be combined to construct new painters. 3. Example > (require (planet "sicp.ss" ("soegaard" "sicp.plt" 2 1))) > (paint (number->painter 0)) > (paint diagonal-shading) > (paint-hires (below (beside diagonal-shading (rotate90 diagonal-shading)) (beside (rotate270 diagonal-shading) (rotate180 diagonal-shading)))) > (paint einstein) 4. Vectors A mathematical vector is called a vect here, in order to avoid confusion with the builtin vectors of Scheme. (make-vect x y) -> vect? x : number? y : number? Constructs a vect with the given coordinates. (vector-xcor v) -> number? v : vect? Returns the x-coordinate. (vector-ycor v) -> number? v : vect? Returns the y-coordinate. (vector-add v w) -> vect? v : vect? w : vect? Adds the two vects by adding their coordinates pairwise. (vector-sub v w) -> vect? v : vect? w : vect? Subtracts the two vects by subtracting their coordinates pairwise. (vector-scale s v) -> vect? s : number? v : vect? Scales the vect by multiplying each coordinate of "v" with the number "s". 5. Frames A frame is descibed by three vectors. ^ | frame edge2 vector | _|__________> /| frame edge1 vector / / / frame origin pointer (make-frame origin edge1 edge2) -> frame? origin : vect? edge1 : vect? edge2 : vect Constructs a frame from a frame origin vector and two frame edge vectors. (frame-origin f) -> vect? f : frame? (frame-edge1 f) -> vect? f : frame? (frame-edge2 f) -> vect? f : frame? Extracts the origin, first edge or second edge from a frame. (make-relative-frame origin corner1 corner2) -> (frame? -> frame?) origin : vect? corner1 : vect? corner2 : vect? The function make-relative-frame provides a convenient way to transform frames. Given a frame and three points : origin, corner1, and corner2 (expressed in frame coordinates), it returns a new frame with those corners. (frame-coord-map f) -> (vect? -> vect?) f : frame? Each frame determines a system of "frame coordinates" (x,y) where (0,0) is the origin of the frame, x represents the displacement along the first edge (as a fraction of the length of the edge) and y is the displacement along the second edge. The frame coordinate map is returned by frame-coord-map. E.g. these expression return the same value: ((frame-coord-map a-frame) (make-vect 0 0)) (frame-origin a-frame) 6. Segments A pair of vectors determines a directed line segment - the segment running from the endpoint of the first vector to the endpoint of the second vector. (make-segment from to) -> segment? from : vect? to : vect? (segment-start s) -> vect? s : segment? (segment-end s) -> vect? s : segment? 7. Primitive Painters Painters take a frame and draw an image, transformed to fit inside the frame. There are four ways to create painters: * from a constant: number->painter * from a list of line segments: segment->painter * form a procedure: procedure->painter * from a picture: picture->painter (number->painter color) -> painter? color : 0..255 Constructs a painter that fills the frame with a gray color indicated by the number. 0 is black and 255 is white. (segments->painter los) -> painter? los : list-of-segment? Constructs a painter that draws a stick figure given by the segments (wrt the unit square). (procedure->painter p) -> painter? p : procedure? Creates painters from procedures. We assume that the procedure f is defined on the unit square. Then to plot a point p in the target frame, we find the inverse image T^-1(p) of p under the transformation that maps the unit square to the target, and find the value of f at T-1(p). (picture->painter p) -> painter? p : picture The picture p is defined on some frame. Given a point p in the target frame, we compute T^-1(p) where T is the transformation that takes the picture frame to the target frame, and find the picture value at the closest integer point. (load-painter filename) -> painter? filename : path? Uses the image file given by filename to create a painter. 8. Higher Order Painters (transform-painter origin corner1 corner2) -> (painter? -> painter?) origin : vect? corner1 : vect? corner2 : vect? A painter can be transformed to produce a new painter which, when given a frame, calls the original painter on the transformed frame. Transform-painter will given an origin and two corners, return a function that takes a painter as argument and returns a transformed painter. (flip-horiz p) -> painter? p : painter Returns a painter that flips the image horizontally. (flip-vert p) -> painter? p : painter Returns a painter that flips the image vertically. (rotate90 p) -> painter? p : painter (rotate180 p) -> painter? p : painter (rotate270 p) -> painter? p : painter Returns a painter that rotates the image. (beside p1 p2) -> painter? p1 : painter p2 : painter Constructs a painter that paints the images side-by-side. (below p1 p2) -> painter? p1 : painter p2 : painter Constructs a painter that paints the second image below the first. (superpose p1 p2) -> painter? p1 : painter p2 : painter Constructs a painter that paints the two images on top of each other. 9. Simple Builtin Painters The following painter values are buitin: black, white and gray Fills the frame with black (0), white (255) or gray (150). diagonal-shading Fills the frame with a shades of gray. The color transition goes from black in the upper left corner is black, to gray in the bottom right corner. einstein Draws an image of Einstein. 10. Painting The procedures paint and paint-hi-res takes a painter as input and return a snip containing the painter’s image. A snip is an image that DrScheme can display automatically. (paint p) -> snip? p : painter? (paint-hi-res p) -> snip? p : painter? 11. Authors Abelson & Sussman: Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. Daniel Coore: Original MIT Scheme code. Mike Sperber: PLT port. Jens Axel Søgaard: Documentation. 12. Other See also the readme.html from the SICP web-site for more documentation and exercises. Peter Henderson’s "Functional Geometry". Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (planet "sicp.ss" ("soegaard" "sicp.plt" 2 1)) Authors below beside Escher Example flip-horiz flip-vert frame-coord-map frame-edge1 frame-edge2 frame-origin Frames geometry Higher Order Painters Introduction load-painter make-frame make-relative-frame make-segment make-vect number->painter Other paint paint-hi-res painter Painting picture picture->painter Primitive Painters procedure->painter Reference rotate180 rotate270 rotate90 segment-end segment-start Segments segments->painter SICP sicp Simple Builtin Painters superpose The SICP Picture Language transform-painter vector-add vector-scale vector-sub vector-xcor vector-ycor Vectors