;;; PLT Scheme Inference Collection ;;; inference-control.ss ;;; Copyright (c) 2006 M. Douglas Williams ;;; ;;; This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or ;;; modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public ;;; License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either ;;; version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. ;;; ;;; This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, ;;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of ;;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU ;;; Lesser General Public License for more details. ;;; ;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public ;;; License along with this library; if not, write to the Free ;;; Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA ;;; 02111-1307 USA. ;;; ;;; Version Date Comments ;;; 1.0.1 07/16/06 Modified assert, retract, and modify to maintain ;;; the assertion index. Eventually need to revisit ;;; the code for efficiency. ;;; 1.0.2 07/19/06 Added stop-simulation, succeed, and fail. Fixed ;;; notall and all existential processing. Fixed ;;; check to return the correct assertion. ;;; 1.0.3 07/22/06 Cleaned up the code (e.g. merged code to activate ;;; data and goal rules). Made trace more readable. ;;; (Doug Williams) ;;; 1.0.4 07/24/06 Added import and export. (Doug Williams) ;;; 1.0.5 07/30/06 Added initial support for shared nodes in the rule ;;; network. (Doug Williams) (module inference-control mzscheme (provide (all-defined)) (require "inference-environments.ss") (require "bindings.ss") (require "patterns.ss") (require "facts.ss") (require "rulesets.ss") (require "matches.ss") (require "assertions.ss") (require (lib "list.ss" "srfi" "1")) ;; assert: list x any -> assertion ;; assert: list -> assertion ;; Assert a fact. This function returns a new assertion from the given ;; fact. It does not check to see if the fact has already been asserted. ;; The assertion is passed into the rule network for inferencing. (define assert (case-lambda ((fact reason) (let ((assertion (make-assertion fact reason))) (when (current-inference-trace) (printf ">>> ~a~n" assertion)) ;; Add the assertion to the assertion index. (hash-table-put! (current-inference-assertion-index) (fact-first fact) (cons assertion (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (fact-first fact) (lambda () '())))) ;; Match and propagate assertion through rule network. (for-each (lambda (match-node) (match-node-assert match-node assertion)) (hash-table-get (current-inference-data-index) (fact-first fact) (lambda () '()))) assertion)) ((fact) (assert fact (current-inference-rule))))) ;; retract: assertion -> void ;; Retract an assertion. The retraction is passed into the rule network ;; for inferencing (define (retract assertion) (when (current-inference-trace) (printf "<<< ~a~n" assertion)) ;; Remove the fact from the assertion index. (hash-table-put! (current-inference-assertion-index) (fact-first (assertion-fact assertion)) (delete! assertion (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (fact-first (assertion-fact assertion))))) ;; Match and unpropagate through the rule network. (for-each (lambda (match-node) (match-node-retract match-node assertion)) (hash-table-get (current-inference-data-index) (fact-first (assertion-fact assertion))))) ;; modify: assertion x list x any -> assertion ;; modify: assertion x list -> assertion ;; Modify an assertion. In essence, retract the assertion and then ;; re-assert it using the given fact. (define modify (case-lambda ((assertion fact reason) ;; Retract the assertion. (retract assertion) ;; Re-assert with the new fact and reason. ;(set-assertion-fact! assertion fact) ;(set-assertion-reason! assertion reason) ;(for-each ; (lambda (match-node) ; (match-node-assert match-node assertion)) ; (hash-table-get (current-inference-data-index) ; (fact-first fact) (lambda () '()))) ;assertion) (assert fact reason)) ((assertion fact) (modify assertion fact (current-inference-rule))))) ;; check: fact? -> match? ;; Check a fact using backtracking. Can be called directly for a ;; pure backward chaining strategy. Also called to initiate backward ;; chaining for match nodes. (define (check fact) (let/ec return (let ((assertion (make-assertion fact (current-inference-rule)))) (when (current-inference-trace) (printf "??? ~a~n" assertion)) (for-each (lambda (match-node) (let ((match (match-node-check match-node assertion return))) (when (not (null? match)) (return match)))) (hash-table-get (current-inference-goal-index) (fact-first fact) (lambda () '()))) '()))) ;; query: pattern? -> list ;; Return a list of assertions matching a pattern. Not currently ;; used internally. May be useful for dynamic bindings within a ;; rule. (define (query pattern) (let ((matches '())) (for-each (lambda (assertion) (let* ((fact (assertion-fact assertion)) (bindings (pattern-unify fact pattern '()))) (if bindings (set! matches (cons (cons assertion bindings) matches))))) (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first pattern) (lambda () '()))) matches)) ;; Inference Control ;; node structure ;; successors - list of successor nodes ;; matches - list of matches for the node ;; - #f for goal nodes ;; match-node structure ;; assertion-variable - assertion variable or #f ;; pattern - pattern to be matched ;; match-constraint-predicate ;; - match constraint predicate ;; join-node structure ;; left - left node (#f or another join node) ;; right - right node (match node) ;; join-constraint-predicate ;; - constraint predicate function ;; existential? - existential nature of the associated ;; match node (right) ;; #f - not an existential match ;; no, notany - no assertions match ;; any - at least one match ;; notall - at least one doesn't match ;; all - all assertions match ;; match-counts - alist of count for joined matches ;; rule-node predicate ;; rule - rule structure ;; join - join node (predecessor) ;; action - procedure to execute (or #f) (define-struct node (successors matches) (make-inspector)) (define-struct (match-node node) (assertion-variable pattern match-constraint-variables match-constraints match-constraint-predicate) (make-inspector)) (define-struct (join-node node) (left right join-constraint-variables join-constraints join-constraint-predicate existential? match-counts) (make-inspector)) (define-struct (rule-node node) (rule join action) (make-inspector)) ;; get-match-node: (same arguments as make-match-node) (define (get-match-node successors matches assertion-variable pattern match-constraint-variables match-constraints match-constraint-predicate) (let/ec return (for-each (lambda (match-node) (when (and (eq? assertion-variable (match-node-assertion-variable match-node)) (equal? pattern (match-node-pattern match-node)) (equal? match-constraint-variables (match-node-match-constraint-variables match-node)) (equal? match-constraints (match-node-match-constraints match-node))) (return match-node))) (hash-table-get (current-inference-data-index) (pattern-first pattern) (lambda () '()))) (let ((match-node (make-match-node successors ; successors matches ; matches assertion-variable ; assertion-variable pattern ; pattern match-constraint-variables ; match-constraint-variables match-constraints ; match-contraints match-constraint-predicate))) ; match-constraint-predicate (hash-table-put! (current-inference-data-index) (pattern-first pattern) (cons match-node (hash-table-get (current-inference-data-index) (pattern-first pattern) (lambda () '())))) match-node))) ;; get-join-node: (same arguments as make-join-node) (define (get-join-node successors matches left right join-constraint-variables join-constraints join-constraint-predicate existential? match-counts) (let/ec return (for-each (lambda (join-node) (when (and (eq? left (join-node-left join-node)) (eq? right (join-node-right join-node)) (equal? join-constraint-variables (join-node-join-constraint-variables join-node)) (equal? join-constraints (join-node-join-constraints join-node)) (eq? existential? (join-node-existential? join-node))) (return join-node))) (node-successors left)) (make-join-node successors matches left right join-constraint-variables join-constraints join-constraint-predicate existential? match-counts))) ;; link-nodes: node x node -> void ;; Link nodes in a predecessor -> successor relationship. (define (link-nodes predecessor successor) (when (not (memq successor (node-successors predecessor))) (set-node-successors! predecessor (cons successor (node-successors predecessor))))) ;; add-match-to-node-matches: list x node -> void ;; Add a match to the list of matches for a node. (define (add-match-to-node-matches match node) (when (node-matches node) (set-node-matches! node (cons match (node-matches node))))) ;; remove-match-from-node-matches: list x node -> void ;; Remove a match from the lisy of matches for a node. For now, ;; assume we have the actual match and can use eq?. (define (remove-match-from-node-matches match node) (let/cc exit (let loop ((previous #f) (matches (node-matches node))) (when (not (null? matches)) (when (eq? match (car matches)) (if previous (set-cdr! previous (cdr matches)) (set-node-matches! node (cdr matches))) (exit)) (loop matches (cdr matches)))))) ;; get-node-matches: node? x bindings? -> matches? ;; Returns the matches for a node. If the node is a backward ;; chaining match node, initiate backward chaining. (define (get-node-matches node bindings) (let ((matches (node-matches node))) (if matches matches (if (match-node? node) (check (pattern-substitute (match-node-pattern node) bindings)) #f)))) ;; Ruleset Activation ;; activate: rule-set -> void ;; Activate a ruleset. Builds the rule network for a ruleset by ;; activating all of the rules (define (activate ruleset) ;; The initial join nodes is used for all data nodes. (let ((initial-join-node (make-join-node '() ; successors '((())) ; matches #f ; left #f ; right '() ; join-constraint-variables '() ; join-constraints #f ; join-constraint-predicate #f ; existential? '()))) ; match-counts (for-each (lambda (rule) (activate-rule rule initial-join-node)) (ruleset-rules ruleset))) (fix-goal-matches)) ;; activate-data-rule: rule -> void ;; Activate a data rule. Build the rule network for a rule by creating ;; and linking nodes. There is one match node and one join node per ;; precondition clause and one rule node per rule. (define (activate-rule rule initial-node) (let ((match-node #f) (join-node #f) (rule-node #f) (previous-node initial-node) (previous-variable-list '())) ;; Create goal match node (goal nodes only) (when (not (null? (rule-goals rule))) (let ((goal-pattern (car (rule-goals rule)))) (set! previous-node (make-match-node '() ; successors #f ; matches #f ; assertion-variable goal-pattern ; pattern '() ; match-constraint-variables '() ; match-constraints #f ; match-constraint-predicate )) (hash-table-put! (current-inference-goal-index) (pattern-first goal-pattern) (cons previous-node (hash-table-get (current-inference-goal-index) (pattern-first goal-pattern) (lambda () '())))) (set! previous-variable-list (pattern-variables goal-pattern)))) ;; Process precondition clauses (for-each (lambda (clause) (let ((existential? #f) (assertion-variable #f) (pattern #f) (variable-list '())) ;; Parse clause (cond ((and (pair? clause) (variable? (car clause))) (set! assertion-variable (car clause)) (set! pattern (caddr clause))) ((and (pair? clause) (memq (car clause) '(no notany any notall all))) (set! existential? (car clause)) (set! pattern (cadr clause))) (else (set! pattern clause))) ;; Add pattern variables to the variable list (set! variable-list (merge-variable-lists previous-variable-list (if assertion-variable (cons assertion-variable (pattern-variables pattern)) (pattern-variables pattern)))) ;; Get match constraints (let ((match-constraints (pattern-match-constraints pattern (pattern-variables pattern)))) ;; Make match node and add to index (set! match-node (get-match-node '() ; successors '() ; matches assertion-variable ; assertion-variable (pattern-base-pattern pattern) ; pattern (if assertion-variable ; match-constraint-variables (cons assertion-variable (pattern-variables pattern)) (pattern-variables pattern)) match-constraints ; match-contraints (if (null? match-constraints) ; match-constraint-predicate #f (eval `(lambda ,(if assertion-variable (cons assertion-variable (pattern-variables pattern)) (pattern-variables pattern)) (and ,@match-constraints)))))) ; (hash-table-put! (current-inference-data-index) ; (pattern-first pattern) ; (cons match-node ; (hash-table-get (current-inference-data-index) ; (pattern-first pattern) ; (lambda () '())))) ) ;; Make join node and link from match-node (let ((join-constraints (pattern-join-constraints pattern (pattern-variables pattern)))) (set! join-node (get-join-node '() ; successors (if (null? (rule-goals rule)) (if (or (memq existential? '(no notany)) (eq? existential? 'all)) (node-matches previous-node) '()) #f) ; matches previous-node ; left match-node ; right variable-list ; join-constraint-variables join-constraints ; join-constraints (if (null? join-constraints); constraint-predicate #f (eval `(lambda ,variable-list (and ,@join-constraints)))) existential? ; existential? '()))) ; match-counts (link-nodes match-node join-node) ;; Link from previous join-node, if any (link-nodes previous-node join-node) (set! previous-node join-node) ;; Update previous-variable-list for non existentials (if (not existential?) (set! previous-variable-list variable-list)))) (rule-preconditions rule)) ;; Create rule node, link to it from the last join node, and add it (set! rule-node (make-rule-node '() ; successors (if (null? (rule-goals rule)) (node-matches previous-node) #f) ; matches rule ; rule previous-node ; join (if (not (rule-actions rule)) #f (eval #`(lambda #,previous-variable-list (and #,@(rule-actions rule))))) ; action )) (link-nodes previous-node rule-node) (current-inference-rule-nodes (append! (current-inference-rule-nodes) (list rule-node))) ) (void)) ;; (define (fix-goal-matches) (hash-table-for-each (current-inference-data-index) (lambda (key value) (when (hash-table-get (current-inference-goal-index) key (lambda () #f)) (for-each (lambda (match-node) (set-node-matches! match-node #f)) value) (hash-table-remove! (current-inference-data-index) key))))) ;; merge-variable-lists: list x list -> list ;; Merge two list of variables maintaining the order. (define (merge-variable-lists list1 list2) (cond ((null? list2) list1) ((memq (car list2) list1) (merge-variable-lists list1 (cdr list2))) (else (merge-variable-lists (append list1 (list (car list2))) (cdr list2))))) ;; Match Node Processing ;; match-node-assert: match-node x assertion -> void ;; Match an assertion against the pattern in a match node. If there ;; is a match, update the matches for the node and propagate the ;; match to the join node(s). (define (match-node-assert match-node assertion) (let ((bindings (pattern-unify (assertion-fact assertion) (match-node-pattern match-node) '()))) (when bindings ;; Add assertion variable, if any. (when (match-node-assertion-variable match-node) (set! bindings (cons (cons (match-node-assertion-variable match-node) assertion) bindings))) ;; Check match constraints (when (and (match-node-match-constraint-predicate match-node) (not (apply (match-node-match-constraint-predicate match-node) (bindings-data bindings)))) (set! bindings #f))) (if bindings ;; Build and propagate match to successors (let ((match (cons (list assertion) bindings))) (add-match-to-node-matches match match-node) (for-each (lambda (successor) (propagate-match-from-match-node match successor)) (node-successors match-node))) (for-each (lambda (successor) (propagate-nonmatch-from-match-node successor)) (node-successors match-node))))) ;; match-node-retract: match-node x assertion -> void ;; Retract an assertion from a match node and propagate the ;; retraction through the rule network. (define (match-node-retract match-node assertion) (let/cc exit (let loop ((previous #f) (matches (node-matches match-node))) (when (not (null? matches)) (let ((match (car matches))) (when (eq? assertion (caar match)) ;; Remove the match (if previous (set-cdr! previous (cdr matches)) (set-node-matches! match-node (cdr matches))) (for-each (lambda (successor) (unpropagate-match-from-match-node match successor)) (node-successors match-node)) (exit))) (loop matches (cdr matches)))) ;; Match not found (for-each (lambda (successor) (unpropagate-nonmatch-from-match-node successor)) (node-successors match-node)))) ;; match-node-check ;; Perform backward chaining from a match node. (define (match-node-check match-node assertion continuation) (let/ec exit (let ((bindings (pattern-unify (assertion-fact assertion) (match-node-pattern match-node) '()))) (when bindings ;; Add assertion variable, if any. (if (match-node-assertion-variable match-node) (set! bindings (cons (cons (match-node-assertion-variable match-node) assertion) bindings))) ;; Check match constraints (when (and (match-node-match-constraint-predicate match-node) (not (apply (match-node-match-constraint-predicate match-node) (bindings-data bindings)))) (exit #f)) ;; Build and propagate match to successors (let ((match (cons (list assertion) bindings))) (add-match-to-node-matches match match-node) (for-each (lambda (successor) (propagate-match-from-join-node match successor continuation)) (node-successors match-node))))) '())) ;; Match Propagation and Unpropagation ;; Propagate Match ;; propagate-match-from-match-node: list x join-node -> void ;; Propagate a match from a match node. This is called when a match ;; node proopagates a match in response to an assertion. (define (propagate-match-from-match-node match join-node) (when (node-matches join-node) (for-each (lambda (left-match) (let ((joined-match (join left-match match join-node))) (if (join-node-existential? join-node) ;; Existential join node (let* ((count-association (assq left-match (join-node-match-counts join-node))) (count (if count-association (cdr count-association) 0))) ;; Update the count (either stay the same or go up by 1) (when joined-match (set! count (+ count 1)) (if count-association (set-cdr! count-association count) (set-join-node-match-counts! join-node (cons (cons left-match count) (join-node-match-counts join-node))))) (case (join-node-existential? join-node) ((no notany) (when (and joined-match (= count 1)) ; count went from 0 to 1 (unpropagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node))) ((any) (when (and joined-match (= count 1)) ; count went from 0 to 1 (propagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f))) ((notall) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (and (not joined-match) (= count (- n 1))) ; count went from n to n-1 (propagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f)))) ((all) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (and (not joined-match) (= count (- n 1))) ; count went from n to n-1 (unpropagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f)))))) ;; Binding join node (when joined-match (propagate-match-to-successors joined-match join-node #f))))) (get-node-matches (join-node-left join-node) (car match))))) ;; propagate-nonmatch-from-match-node: join-node? ;; Propagate a nonmatch from a match node. This is used to update ;; notall and all existential matches. (define (propagate-nonmatch-from-match-node join-node) (when (node-matches join-node) (for-each (lambda (left-match) (when (join-node-existential? join-node) (let* ((count-association (assq left-match (join-node-match-counts join-node))) (count (if count-association (cdr count-association) 0))) (case (join-node-existential? join-node) ((notall) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (= count (- n 1)) (propagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f)))) ((all) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (= count (- n 1)) (unpropagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node)))))))) (get-node-matches (join-node-left join-node) '())))) ;; propagate-match-from-join-node: list x join-node -> void ;; Propagate a match from one join node to a successor join node. (define (propagate-match-from-join-node match join-node continuation) (if (join-node-existential? join-node) ;; Existential join node (let ((count 0)) (for-each (lambda (right-match) (let ((joined-match (join match right-match join-node))) (when joined-match (set! count (+ count 1))))) (node-matches (join-node-right join-node))) ;; Add match to match counts (set-join-node-match-counts! join-node (cons (cons match count) (join-node-match-counts join-node))) ;; Propagate match based on existential type (case (join-node-existential? join-node) ((no notany) (when (= count 0) (propagate-match-to-successors match join-node continuation))) ((any) (when (> count 1) (propagate-match-to-successors match join-node continuation))) ((notall) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (< count n) (propagate-match-to-successors match join-node continuation)))) ((all) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (= count n) (propagate-match-to-successors match join-node continuation)))))) ;; Binding join node (for-each (lambda (right-match) (let ((joined-match (join match right-match join-node))) (when joined-match (propagate-match-to-successors joined-match join-node continuation)))) (get-node-matches (join-node-right join-node) (cdr match))))) ;; propagate-match-to-successors: list x join-node -> void ;; Propagate a match from a join node to its successor nodes. (define (propagate-match-to-successors match join-node continuation) ;; Add match to node matches (add-match-to-node-matches match join-node) ;; Propagate match to successor nodes (for-each (lambda (successor) (if (join-node? successor) (propagate-match-from-join-node match successor continuation) (propagate-match-to-rule match successor continuation))) (node-successors join-node))) ;; propagate-match-to-rule: list x rule-node -> void ;; Propagate a match from a join node to a successor rule node. (define (propagate-match-to-rule match rule-node continuation) ;(add-match-to-node-matches match rule-node) (if (node-matches rule-node) (let ((rule-instance (make-rule-instance rule-node match 0))) (agenda-add! rule-instance)) (begin (when (current-inference-trace) (printf "<== ~a: ~a~n" (rule-node-rule rule-node) (cdr match))) (when (rule-node-action rule-node) (current-inference-rule (rule-node-rule)) (apply (rule-node-action rule-node) (bindings-data match)) (current-inference-rule #f)) (continuation (list (cons (list (caar match)) (cdr match))))))) ;; Unpropagate Matches ;; unpropagate-match-from-match-node: list x join-node -> void ;; Unpropagate a match from a match node. This is called when a match ;; node unpropagates a match in response to a retraction. (define (unpropagate-match-from-match-node match join-node) (if (join-node-existential? join-node) ;; Existential node (for-each (lambda (left-match) (let* ((count-association (assq left-match (join-node-match-counts join-node))) (count (cdr count-association)) (joined-match (join left-match match join-node))) (when joined-match (set! count (- count 1)) (set-cdr! count-association count)) (case (join-node-existential? join-node) ((no notany) (when (and joined-match (= count 0)) ; count went from 1 to 0 (propagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f))) ((any) (when (and join-node (= count 0)) ; count went from 1 to 0 (unpropagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node))) ((notall) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (and (not joined-match) (= count n)) ; count went from n-1 to n (unpropagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node)))) ((all) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (and (not joined-match) (= count n)) ; count went from n-1 to n (propagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f))))))) (node-matches (join-node-left join-node))) ;; Binding join node (let ((assertion (caar match))) (for-each (lambda (match) (when (eq? assertion (last (car match))) (unpropagate-match-to-successors match join-node))) (node-matches join-node))))) ;; unpropagate-nonmatch-from-match-node: join-node? ;; Unpropagate a nonmatch (from a retraction). This is needed to ;; update notall and all existential matches. (define (unpropagate-nonmatch-from-match-node join-node) (when (join-node-existential? join-node) (for-each (lambda (left-match) (let* ((count-association (assq left-match (join-node-match-counts join-node))) (count (if count-association (cdr count-association) 0))) (case (join-node-existential? join-node) ((notall) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (= count n) (unpropagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node)))) ((all) (let ((n (length (hash-table-get (current-inference-assertion-index) (pattern-first (match-node-pattern (join-node-right join-node))))))) (when (= count n) (propagate-match-to-successors left-match join-node #f))))))) (node-matches (join-node-left join-node))))) ;; unpropagate-match-from-join-node: list x join-node -> void ;; Unpropagate a match from a join node. ;; For each of the matches for the node: ;; When the given match is a subset of the node match: ;; Remove the node match and unpropagate it to its successors. (define (unpropagate-match-from-join-node match join-node) ;; Remove the count (let/ec exit (let loop ((previous #f) (alist (join-node-match-counts join-node))) (when (not (null? alist)) (let ((association (car alist))) (when (eq? match (car association)) (if previous (set-cdr! previous (cdr alist)) (set-join-node-match-counts! join-node (cdr alist))) (exit))) (loop alist (cdr alist))))) ;; Unpropagate match to successors (for-each (lambda (node-match) (when (match-subset? match node-match) (unpropagate-match-to-successors node-match join-node))) (node-matches join-node))) ;; unpropagate-match-to-successors: list x join-node -> void ;; Unpropagate a match from a join node to its successors. (define (unpropagate-match-to-successors match join-node) ;; Remove the match from the node matches. (remove-match-from-node-matches match join-node) ;; Unpropagate match to successor nodes. (for-each (lambda (successor) (if (join-node? successor) (unpropagate-match-from-join-node match successor) (unpropagate-match-to-rule match successor))) (node-successors join-node))) ;; unpropagate-match-to-rule: list x rule-node -> void ;; Unpropagate a match from a join node to a successor rule node. (define (unpropagate-match-to-rule match rule-node) (agenda-remove! rule-node match)) ;; join: list x list x join-node -> #f or list ;; Join two (left and right) matches. If the bindings are consistant ;; and the constraints are met, join the matches and propagate the ;; joined match to any successor (join or rule) nodes. (define (join left-match right-match join-node) (let ((left-assertions (car left-match)) (left-bindings (cdr left-match)) (right-assertions (car right-match)) (right-bindings (cdr right-match))) (let/cc return ;; Check that bindings match (for-each (lambda (right-binding) (if (assq (car right-binding) left-bindings) (if (not (equal? (cdr right-binding) (cdr (assq (car right-binding) left-bindings)))) (return #f)))) right-bindings) ;; Add new bindings (let ((bindings left-bindings)) (for-each (lambda (right-binding) (if (not (assq (car right-binding) left-bindings)) (set! bindings (append bindings (list right-binding))))) right-bindings) ;; Check constraints (if (and (join-node-join-constraint-predicate join-node) (not (apply (join-node-join-constraint-predicate join-node) (bindings-data bindings)))) (return #f)) ;; Return match (cons (append left-assertions right-assertions) bindings))))) ;; Rule instances (define-struct rule-instance (rule-node match random)) ;; rule-instance-apply: rule-instance? (define (rule-instance-apply rule-instance) (let* ((rule-node (rule-instance-rule-node rule-instance)) (rule (rule-node-rule rule-node)) (match (rule-instance-match rule-instance)) (arguments (bindings-data (cdr match)))) (when (current-inference-trace) (printf "==> ~a: ~a~n" rule (cdr match))) ;; Apply the rule (current-inference-rule rule) (apply (rule-node-action rule-node) arguments) (current-inference-rule #f))) ;; agenda-add!: rule-instance? ;; Add a rule instance to the agenda in accordance with the current ;; conflict resolution strategy. (define (agenda-add! rule-instance) (let* ((rule-node (rule-instance-rule-node rule-instance)) (rule (rule-node-rule rule-node)) (priority (rule-priority rule))) (when (eq? (current-inference-strategy) 'random) (set-rule-instance-random! rule-instance (random))) (let ((agenda-tail (current-inference-agenda)) (previous #f)) (let loop () (when (not (null? agenda-tail)) (let* ((item (car agenda-tail)) (item-rule-node (rule-instance-rule-node item)) (item-rule (rule-node-rule item-rule-node)) (item-priority (rule-priority item-rule))) (cond ((> item-priority priority) (set! previous agenda-tail) (set! agenda-tail (cdr agenda-tail)) (loop)) ((and (= item-priority priority) (or (eq? (current-inference-strategy) 'breadth) (and (eq? (current-inference-strategy) 'order) (<= (rule-order item-rule) (rule-order rule))) (and (eq? (current-inference-strategy) 'simplicity) (<= (rule-specificity item-rule) (rule-specificity rule))) (and (eq? (current-inference-strategy) 'complexity) (>= (rule-specificity item-rule) (rule-specificity rule))) (and (eq? (current-inference-strategy) 'random) (<= (rule-instance-random item) (rule-instance-random rule-instance))))) (set! previous agenda-tail) (set! agenda-tail (cdr agenda-tail)) (loop)) (else (void)))))) (if previous (set-cdr! previous (cons rule-instance agenda-tail)) (current-inference-agenda (cons rule-instance agenda-tail)))))) ;; agenda-remove: rule-node? x match? ;; Remove the rule instance for the given rule-node and match from ;; the agenda. (define (agenda-remove! rule-node match) (let loop ((previous #f) (agenda-tail (current-inference-agenda))) (when (not (null? agenda-tail)) (let ((item (car agenda-tail))) (if (and (eq? rule-node (rule-instance-rule-node item)) (eq? match (rule-instance-match item))) (if previous (set-cdr! previous (cdr agenda-tail)) (current-inference-agenda (cdr agenda-tail))) (loop agenda-tail (cdr agenda-tail))))))) ;; import: pattern? ;; Import assertions from the parent environment matching the given ;; pattern. (define (import pattern) (when (not (current-inference-parent)) (error 'import "Current inference environment is not a child environment")) (let ((matches '())) (with-inference-environment (current-inference-parent) (set! matches (query pattern))) (for-each (lambda (match) (assert (assertion-fact (car match)))) matches))) ;; export: pattern? ;; Exports assertions matching the given pattern to the parent ;; environment. (define (export pattern) (when (not (current-inference-parent)) (error 'import "Current inference environment is not a child environment")) (let ((matches (query pattern))) (with-inference-environment (current-inference-parent) (for-each (lambda (match) (assert (assertion-fact (car match)))) matches)))) ;; start-inference -> void ;; The inference engine main loop. (define (start-inference) (assert '(start)) (let/cc exit ;; Set the global exit continuation. (current-inference-exit exit) ;; Simple selection - find the first rule instance (let loop () (let ((agenda (current-inference-agenda))) (if (not (null? agenda)) (let ((rule-instance (car agenda))) (current-inference-agenda (cdr agenda)) (rule-instance-apply rule-instance) (loop)) #f))))) ;; stop-inference: any ;; stop-inference: ;; Stop the current inferencing and optionally return a value. (define stop-inference (case-lambda ((return-value) ((current-inference-exit) return-value)) (() ((current-inference-exit))))) ;; succeed: ;; Stop the current inferencing and return #t indicating success. (define (succeed) (stop-inference #t)) ;; fail: ;; Stop the current inferencing and return #f indicating failure. (define (fail) (stop-inference #:fail)) ;; print-rule-network ;; For debugging. (define (print-rule-network) (for-each (lambda (rule-node) (printf "----------~n") (printf "Rule: ~a~n~n" (rule-name (rule-node-rule rule-node))) (print-join-node (rule-node-join rule-node))) (current-inference-rule-nodes))) (define (print-join-node join-node) (when (join-node-left join-node) (if (join-node? (join-node-left join-node)) (print-join-node (join-node-left join-node)) (print-match-node (join-node-left join-node)))) (when (join-node-right join-node) (print-match-node (join-node-right join-node))) (printf "join node: existential? = ~a~n" (join-node-existential? join-node)) (printf "join-node: match-counts = ~a~n" (join-node-match-counts join-node)) (printf "join node: matches = ~a~n~n" (node-matches join-node))) (define (print-match-node match-node) (printf "match-node: pattern = ~a~n" (match-node-pattern match-node)) (printf "match-node: matches = ~a~n~n" (node-matches match-node))) )