define a Skolem (witnessing) function
Major Section:  EVENTS

(defchoose choose-x-for-p-and-q (x) (y z)
  (and (p x y z)
       (q x y z)))

(defchoose choose-x-for-p-and-q x (y z) ; equivalent to the above (and (p x y z) (q x y z)))

; The following is as above, but strengthens the axiom added to pick a sort ; of canonical witness, as described below. (defchoose choose-x-for-p-and-q x (y z) (and (p x y z) (q x y z)) :strengthen t)

(defchoose choose-x-and-y-for-p-and-q (x y) (z) (and (p x y z) (q x y z)))

General Form: (defchoose fn (bound-var1 ... bound-varn) (free-var1 ... free-vark) body :doc doc-string :strengthen b),
where fn is the symbol you wish to define and is a new symbolic name (see name), (bound-var1 ... bound-varn) is a list of distinct `bound' variables (see below), (free-var1 ... free-vark) is the list of formal parameters of fn and is disjoint from the bound variables, and body is a term. The use of lambda-list keywords (such as &optional) is not allowed. The documentation string argument, :doc doc-string, is optional; for a description of the form of doc-string see doc-string. The :strengthen keyword argument is optional; if supplied, it must be t or nil.

The system treats fn very much as though it were declared in the signature of an encapsulate event, with a single axiom exported as described below. If you supply a :use hint (see hints), :use fn, it will refer to that axiom. No rule (of class :rewrite or otherwise; see rule-classes) is created for fn.

Defchoose is only executed in defun-mode :logic; see defun-mode. Also see defun-sk.

In the most common case, where there is only one bound variable, it is permissible to omit the enclosing parentheses on that variable. The effect is the same whether or not those parentheses are omitted. We describe this case first, where there is only one bound variable, and then address the other case. Both cases are discussed assuming :strengthen is nil, which is the default. We deal with the case :strengthen t at the end.

The effect of the form

(defchoose fn bound-var (free-var1 ... free-vark)
is to introduce a new function symbol, fn, with formal parameters (free-var1 ... free-vark). Now consider the following axiom, which states that fn picks a value of bound-var so that the body will be true, if such a value exists:
(1)   (implies body
               (let ((bound-var (fn free-var1 ... free-vark)))
This axiom is ``clearly conservative'' under the conditions expressed above: the function fn simply picks out a ``witnessing'' value of bound-var if there is one. For a rigorous statement and proof of this conservativity claim, see conservativity-of-defchoose.

Next consider the case that there is more than one bound variable, i.e., there is more than one bound-var in the following.

(defchoose fn 
           (bound-var1 ... bound-varn)
           (free-var1 ... free-vark)
Then fn returns a multiple value with n componenets, and formula (1) above is expressed using mv-let as follows:
(implies body
         (mv-let (bound-var1 ... bound-varn)
                 (fn free-var1 ... free-vark)

We now discuss the case that :strengthen t is supplied. For simplicity we return to our first example, with a single free variable, y. The idea is that if we pick the ``smallest'' witnessing bound-var for two different free variables y and y1, then either those two witnesses are the same, or else one is less than the other, in which case the smaller one is a witness for its free variable but not for the other. (See comments in source function defchoose-constraint-extra for more details.) Below, body1 is the result of replacing y by y1 in body.

(2)   (or (equal (fn y) (fn y1))
          (let ((bound-var (fn y)))
            (and body
                 (not body1)))
          (let ((bound-var (fn y1)))
            (and body1
                 (not body))))
An important application of this additional axiom is to be able to define a ``fixing'' function that picks a canonical representative of each equivalence class, for a given equivalence relation. The following events illustrate this point.
 ((equiv (x y) t))
 (local (defun equiv (x y) (equal x y)))
 (defequiv equiv))

(defchoose efix (x) (y) (equiv x y) :strengthen t)

(defthm equiv-implies-equal-efix-1 (implies (equiv y y1) (equal (efix y) (efix y1))) :hints (("Goal" :use efix)) :rule-classes (:congruence))

(defthm efix-fixes (equiv (efix x) x) :hints (("Goal" :use ((:instance efix (y x))))))

If there is more than one bound variable, then (2) is modified in complete analogy to (1) to use mv-let in place of let.

Comment for logicians: As we point out in the documentation for defun-sk, defchoose is ``appropriate,'' by which we mean that it is conservative, even in the presence of epsilon-0 induction. For a proof, See conservativity-of-defchoose.